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[原创资料翻译] [连载] 亚当的模型指导书 下册 第二期 底色和迷彩

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发表于 2018-9-4 14:01:35 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
本帖最后由 facewest 于 2018-9-4 18:18 编辑

首先,非常高兴第一期连载后大家给予的鼓励和支持。特别感谢@jxlmini 兄弟分享了新版的资料。可以让后续的翻译工作和呈现更好一点。
今天就给大家带来亚当的模型指导书下册的 第二期连载翻译吧。
没看过第一期的同学可以 前往传送门 http://www.moxdao.com/thread-56135-1-1.html

有关第二期有几个地方需要说明一下:
1. 这一章节亚当写的覆盖面非常的广。所以内容特别多(包括喷笔气泵的选择,喷笔的使用方法,调漆,喷涂,笔涂,迷彩等等),有些内容老手们可能觉得很无趣,所以我占六个楼层慢慢呈现吧,大家别插楼哦。
2. 为了充分尊重原出版社,我并不打算用在原图书排版基础上粘贴中文的方式呈现,还是通过截图的模式来吧。可能影响一点点大家的观感,请大家小小牺牲一下。
3. 为了方便阅读,这期我会把中文放在前面,英文作为参考放在后面,大家注意图示编号对应的内容。
4. 有些地方我加入了一些自己的理解,甚至有些观点和亚当有点出入,大家多多批评指正。

所有原文内容版权都归作者和出版社所有,任何人不得用于商业用途。翻译稿欢迎转载,但请先联系本人。多谢大家!


Applying basecoats and camouflages 底色和迷彩涂装


模型上的第一层漆我们称之为底漆(base coat)(译者注:这里并不是指水补土,这里的base coat指的是水补土之后上的一层用来打底的颜色,干脆理解为底色比较好一点)
The first layer of paint that you applyonto a scale model is often referred to as a base coat.

这个底色将成为后续所有喷涂和旧化步骤的基础,和各种旧化效果一起配合作用,来呈现给观看者。因此选择底色的颜色非常的重要,因为随着后续的各种涂装步骤,这个底色呈现出来的最终颜色也会逐渐发生改变。同时,在涂装的时候我们需要注意的事项:操作要柔和,平稳的喷涂,喷涂打底色的时候尽量不要有瑕疵(译者注:这样在后续过程中这个瑕疵会一直存在,可能需要更大量的工作去弥补),并且不要漏掉模型上的任何细节和角角落落。当然,后面要介绍的伪装(迷彩)涂装也要遵循这些原则。
This base color serves as the pedestal thatwill work in conjunction with all of the following semi-transparent weatheringsteps and effects applied over it. Therefore the color that you choose for abasecoat is very important as it will be altered by the subsequent finishingsteps. The base coat also needs to be applied properly so it is smooth, withoutflaws and not hiding any of the important fine details while evenly coveringthe model. Of course much of the same goes for the camouflage that is usuallyapplied immediately after.

03-00.jpg
说起我们要提前规划好底色的用色,这个JSU-152上喷涂的暗绿色就是一个很好的例子。我为了让色泽看上去更加的有活力,我增加了黄色把颜色调的更亮了一点。在本书的下一部分中,你们将会看到这种明亮的颜色是怎么变暗成为更加准确的苏军绿阴影色,同时又不影响它在渍洗,褪色和应用其他旧化效果时仍然保有活力。
The dark green shade airbrushed onto thisJSU-152 is a good example of planning ahead when choosing your base color. Imixed this tone to be rather light while also adding a lot of yellow forvibrancy. You will see throughout the next parts of this book that the lightertone will be darkened to more of an accurate Russian green shade while stillcontaining a hint of vitality after the washes, fading and other variousweathering effects have been added.

在涂装底色的时候,笔涂和喷涂都可以。当然,现在大部分模型爱好者都习惯用喷笔喷涂的方式来喷涂底色和迷彩。因此,喷涂对于模型制作至关重要,需要我们多多练习熟练操作,寻找感觉。正确的维护我们的喷笔,让它保持良好的工作状态也非常重要。随着时间的推移,为了达到更好的效果,你还将会为你的喷笔寻找最合适的油漆或涂料,这也是必要的。
Using a paintbrush for applying a basecoatis certainly an option although most hobbyists usually airbrush both thebasecoat and the camouflage. Therefore airbrushing is vital to scale modellingand it's something that comes with practice. Properly maintaining your airbrushis very important in order to keep it functioning properly. Choosing yourpaints is also essential. Over time you will also begin to find which paintsyou are most comfortable with when airbrushing.

今天带来的这个部分将包含正确使用和维护喷笔的知识和示例。我们还会讨论喷涂底色或迷彩用的方法和涂料。这些技术是我在多年的制作和发布模型作品的经验中总结和学习到的。现在让我们一起看一下在购买你需要的喷笔和压缩机(气泵)时要考虑的注意事项。
These segments will contain information andexamples for properly using and maintaining an airbrush. I will also discussthe methods and paints that I use to apply base coats and camouflages. Thesetechniques are what I have learnt from experience over the years to get theresults on the models that I publish. Let's now look at some things to keep inmind when purchasing an airbrush and compressor that will best fit your needs.


Choosing an airbrush andcompressor 选择喷笔和气泵
可以说喷笔是我们在涂装模型时最重要的工具。
Arguably the airbrush is our most importanttool when it comes to painting replicas.

双动喷笔现在或多或少已经是整个模型爱好者群体中的标配了。还有一种喷笔是单动喷笔,不能控制气流和出漆量,这种喷笔在你喷涂迷彩或者应用CM技法时可能会有所限制。相比之下,双动喷笔的价格可能贵一点,但它的优势就是可以让您随心所欲的控制出气量和出漆量,帮助你更加有效的完成喷涂工作。
Double action airbrushes are more or lessthe standard type used throughout the hobby. There are also single action typeairbrushes but you cannot simultaneously control the airflow together with theamount of paint passing through the nozzle. This can be limiting when sprayingcamouflages or applying color modulation for example. Although more expensive,a double action airbrush allows you to control both the amount of paint goingthrough the nozzle and the airflow making it much more applicable foreffectively caring out these tasks.

市场上的喷笔多种多样,价格不同,质量不同。大家可能以为那些专业的模型制作者都用非常昂贵的喷笔。但事实上,很多模型制作者仍然喜欢他们一直使用的顺手的那只,甚至有可能是他们第一支喷笔。除了偶尔更换一些零件,只要你好好的保养它,买一只优质喷笔,你就可以用非常久。大多数优质喷笔都有保修,因此您可以免费更换大部分出故障的零件。(译者注:当然这种情况在我国可能有些差异)
There is a wide range of airbrushesavailable in regards to both price and quality. One might think that professionalmodelers own a wide range of expensive airbrushes. In fact many practicedhobbyists still prefer their first airbrush which they have been comfortablewith using for many years. With the exception of occasionally replacing a part,purchasing a quality airbrush is an investment that you will only need to makeonce if you both take care of and clean it regularly. Most quality airbrushesalso come with a warranty therefore you will be able to get most broken partsreplaced for free.

喷笔的一个重要参数是喷嘴的口径和喷针的直径。喷针通常从0.2mm到0.5mm不等。较小口径的喷笔用于喷涂需要精细操作的图案,比如用来喷涂迷彩。而较大口径的喷笔适用大面的喷涂,比如底色。大多数优质喷笔都可以根据你的需要选择不同口径购买。
An important factor with an airbrush is thewidth of the needle and its nozzle. Needles usually rage from 0.2mm to 0.5mm.Smaller needles are suitable for very fine controlled camouflages and effectswhile bigger ones are better for larger surfaces such as applying base coats. Mostgood airbrushes are available in a choice of different sizes.

使用双动喷笔,您可以控制出漆量。正因为这个特点,即使你用0.2mm口径的双动喷笔来进行大面积喷涂也不太可能会遇到问题。但使用单动喷笔,你用0.5mm的喷笔喷涂细线时就会遇到麻烦。所以,如果你正打算买一只通用性的喷笔,我建议你选择较小口径的双动喷笔。
With a double action airbrush you cancontrol the amount of paint that you are spraying onto the model. Thereforewhen using one you are less likely to encounter problems when quickly paintinga large surface with a 0.2mm needle. With a single action type you might havedifficulties when trying to spray very thin lines through a 0.5mm nozzle. Consequentlyif you are looking for an all-purpose scale modelling airbrush, a double actionmodel containing a smaller nozzle is recommended.

好好做一些功课,你可以找到价格合理的优质喷笔。注意,多花一点钱可能就会在质量上得到回报,好的喷笔通常比较耐用。所以多花的这一点点钱还是非常值得的。有了喷笔以后,您需要的就是不断的练习来熟练掌握它。有了经验之后,您甚至可以发现您的这只喷笔有着最适合它的油漆类型。
With a bit of research and searching youshould be able to find a good airbrush that fits your needs at a reasonableprice lasting you for years to come. Remember that a little investment willmost likely pay back in regards of quality. Durability and therefore longevity.After you have purchased your airbrush the essential thing that you will needis experience that can only be gained with practice. Withe experience you willalso find that you are more comfortable with airbrushing some types of paintthan others.

熟练喷笔操作之后,你就可以充分利用你的这个利器了!你可以知道喷涂时该用什么类型的油漆,如何在喷涂中控制漆膜的多寡,并且可以达到什么效果。
Understanding the paints your use and howmuch to thin each of them for different types of finishes and effects will alsocome with practice allowing you to get the most out of your airbrush.

03-01.jpg
Photo1 图片1
这张图中的三支喷笔就是我在这本书中所用到的三支。都是双动型的。这只米格出品的大喷壶顶级喷笔我已经用了六年了。这只喷笔是0.3口径,可以喷更多的漆。它比较适合用来喷大面积的底色。
中间的这款是田宫的超细 HG,是一款非常棒的通用性0.2口径喷笔,我这7年来发表的每一个模型都是用它来完成的。
最下面这款是汉莎的Infinity喷笔,我只有在做非常复杂的迷彩和进行CM色调调节时才把它拿出来。这支喷笔其实是几年前收到的礼物。最开始用的时候,我非常不习惯,因为它的出气方式和调节方法和我习惯用的田宫喷笔完全不同。直到过了一段时间,我熟练使用之后,现在我认为他是目前我拥有的最好的喷笔了。所以,就像我之前提到的,想要充分利用你手里的这只喷笔,只有花时间不断的进行练习或操作,从而熟练掌握它。
These are the three airbrushes that I willbe suing throughout this book. They are all double action types. I have had thetop Mig Productions airbrush containing a large cup for around six years now.This airbrush has a 0.3 nozzle allowing it to spray larger amounts of paint. Itis ideal for quickly applying sound basecoats over larger subjects.
The middle one is a Tamiya superfine HG-SFmodel. It is a good general purpose airbrush containing a smaller 0.2mm nozzle.This was the only airbrush that I used for all of the articles that I publishedfor almost seven years.
The bottom airbrush is an Infinity model byHarder and Steinbach. I only take it out when applying complexed camouflagesand color modulation. It was given to me as a gift a few years ago and I wasinitially discouraged with this model when I started using it. The action wasdifferent from the Tamiya superfine that I was accustomed to. After some time Iwas able to get familiar with the action of the Infinity and now consider to bethe finest airbrush that I currently own. Therefore, as I mentioned earlier,only with time and practice can you get accustomed to your airbrush allowing youto get the most out of it.


03-02.jpg
Photo 2 图片2
有了喷笔的第一件事就是把它大卸八块,来看看它究竟是怎么工作的。了解喷笔的功能还能让您在使用过程中发生问题时快速的确定故障原因并排除它,也方便你清洗喷笔。至于清洗喷笔的方法我们后面再说。
The first thing that you should do uponpurchasing an airbrush is disassemble it. Knowing how it goes together willgive you and understanding of how it operates. Knowing how your airbrushfunctions will also allow you to quickly troubleshoot and clean it during andafter use. We will discuss more about cleaning your airbrush shortly.

好吧,喷笔还需要有个气泵(也叫压缩机)才能使用。市场上也有不同类型,不同价格的气泵。就像买喷笔一样,在购买之前我们也要做一些功课。
Your airbrush will also need a source ofair in order to operate. There are also many different compressors availablethat differ in type and price. Like when looking for an airbrush you will wantto do a bit of research before purchasing a compressor.

03-03.jpg
Photo 3 图片 3
现在我在使用的有两个气泵。这张照片里的是当初在俄罗斯的时候别人给的,算是在还没买到更好的之前的一个权宜产品吧。这个泵的价格非常便宜,气流大小是由右侧的小旋钮控制,用到后面这个旋钮已经松动了,必须要用胶带缠住,因为气泵在使用过程中会发生振动,结果慢慢的就把这个旋钮给振松了。虽然是适合初学者的基础款,但这个气泵完全够用。这本书中的一些模型就是用这个泵来做的。
I have two compressors that I use. Thefirst in this photo was given to me while in Russia as a stop-gap prior topurchasing a better one. It is a rather low-end inexpensive type. The airflowis controlled by the small knob on the right hand side. This knob later had tobe taped in place as the compressor's vibration during use would cause it tocome loose slowly increasing the flow through my airbrush. Although basic andmore for beginners, it does work and a few of the models in this book werepainted only using this compressor.
03-04.jpg
Photo 4 图片 4
想这样的静音气泵在业余爱好者中更为常见。这些型号的气泵通常都带有空气流量调节、自动开关机,压力和过热保护等等功能。还含有油水分离器,这个装置也以防止冷凝的水分聚集在气管中从而在喷漆的时候产生“吐口水”这种现象,影响漆面的美观。
Silent compressors like this one are muchmore common amongst hobbyists. Models like these usually contain an air flowregulator, automatic on/off pressure switches and thermal overload protection.They also contain a moisture trap. Moisture traps keep condensation fromaccumulation in your air hose creating drops that will cause the airbrush to"spit" affecting the soundness of the base coat.

如果您好好的保养你的气泵,这家伙完全可以终身服役。现在让我们一起来看看气泵和喷笔因为没设置好而常见的一些问题吧。

If you take care of your compressormaintaining it regularly, these devices will most likely last you a lifetime.Now let's look at some common problems usually encountered when your airbrushand compressor are not properly set.

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 楼主| 发表于 2018-9-4 14:02:06 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 facewest 于 2018-9-4 14:16 编辑

Troubleshooting yourairbrush 喷涂常见问题

在喷涂时,为了获得良好的效果,您应该记住下面几点:
When airbrushing there are a couple ofthings that you should keep in mind in order to obtain good results.
首先,你应该非常熟悉自己的喷笔。你所使用的的油漆类型也很重要,因为不同的油漆类型会产生不同的效果。即使是相同类型,不同品牌的油漆也会有自己的特点。你需要记住两件非常重要的事:第一是气压,第二,最重要的就是油漆的稀释比例。这两个因素在你喷涂的时候务必要认真对待。对于喷涂底漆,我始终建议稀释比例稍大一点,也就是稀一点。大多数模型制作者喜欢3:7开的比例稀释(译者注:也就是漆3,稀释剂7,当然这里可能指的是硝基漆),当然稀释比例并不是绝对的,可以根据你自己喷涂的需要做调整。有时候我喷涂补土和清漆的时候往往用到7:3的比例(就是漆7,稀释剂3).在喷涂模型底漆的时候,您应该采用较为快速的手法薄喷数层。两层或则三层薄喷的效果肯定比一层厚喷来的好很多。在喷涂迷彩或者斑点的时候,根据你想要达到的效果,稀释比例往往也会不同。如果你想要硬边迷彩,那漆的比例就要多一些,如果想要边缘比较柔和的花纹,那就把漆调稀一点。当然气泵的气压对喷漆的效果液会产生影响。还是老话,实践出真知,要多练!
You should be familiar with your airbrush.The kind of paint you are working with is also important because differenttypes of paint will give various results. Even different brands of the sametypes of paint contain their own characteristics. The two major things that youwill need to keep in mind are the air pressure and, most important, the paint-to-thinnerratio. All of these factors need to be considered for the various tasks thatyou will need an airbrush for. For a base coat it is always recommended to usea thin mixture. Most modelers prefer a mix of 30% paint to 70% thinner ratio.This ratio can vary depending on the paint. I airbrush some primers andvarnishes at a 70% paint to 30% thinner ratio. When airbrushing scale modelsyou should start with applying rather thin layers using quick passes whenapplying a base coat for example. Two or three thin coats will always lead to amore satisfying result than one thick coat. When creating camouflage stripes orblotches the paint to thinner ratio will sometimes vary depending on the resultyou would like to obtain. If you are after a rather hard edged pattern it isrecommended to use mixture containing a bit more paint. Patterns with softeredges are best applied using a mixture with more thinner. Of course theair-pressure that your compressor is set to also has an effect. Again,understanding all of this will come with practice.
在模型上喷涂之前,应该现在一张废纸上喷一下检查一下效果是否满意。以下图片展示了喷涂时可能遇到的集中典型不理想状态。随图片的文字会告诉你需要作出哪些调整以改善结果。另外还有个问题就是喷笔的状态也是造成喷涂问题的原因之一,您要确保喷笔的清洁,并且没有余漆残留在喷嘴和喷针上。
Before even getting your airbrush close toyour model you should check the result first on a piece of scrap paper. Thefollowing pictures display typical unwanted result that you may encounter whenairbrushing. The accompanying text will give you an idea on what needs to bechanged to improve the outcome. Another source of problems is the condition ofthe airbrush. You need to make sure that it is always clean and that there areno paint residues from past projects inside adhered to the nozzle and needle.
03-05-01.jpg
Photo 1 图片1
在这幅图片中看到的结果就表示油漆调的太稀,需要增加额外的油漆。
The result seen on this first exampleindicates that the paint is clearly too thin. Extra paint needs to be added tothe mixture.
03-05-02.jpg
Photo 2 图片2
在图案周围呈现大量不均匀的分散斑点,这可能意味着涂料太厚,应该增加稀释剂。
An uneven application with wildly dispersedspeckles probably mean that this time the paint is too thick and more thinnershould be added
03-05-03.jpg
Photo 3 图片3
在这个例子中,有两个错误。首先,油漆太稀,另外,喷涂的时候气压设置的太高了。所以形成了这种我们称之为“蜘蛛脚”的形状,出现这个,就是告诉你气压太大了!
On this example two errors have occurred. Firstthe paint mixture is too thin containing not enough paint and the air pressureis set too high. The so called "spider legs" are always an indicatorof excessive the air pressure.
03-05-04.jpg
Photo 4 图片4
如果你喷涂出来的效果和这个类似,那么你要把气泵的气压调高了。
If your application looks similar to thisyou might want to increase the air pressure of your compressor as it is a bittoo low.
03-05-05.jpg
Photo 5 图片5
每个油漆涂料品牌通常都有自己的稀释剂和/或洗笔液。建议购买同品牌的这些稀释剂和洗笔液使用。因为他们与油漆涂料的化学性质相对应,所以可以取得更好的效果。如果想要摆脱烦人的堵笔,那么确保在每次喷涂之后彻底的清洁喷笔。这比你下次喷涂时发现堵笔再拆再洗要节省很多时间。
Every brand of paint usually has their ownthinner and/or airbrush cleaner. It is recommended to use such productstogether as they correspond to the chemistry of the paint. Horrible clogs canresult in your airbrush otherwise. Make sure that your airbrush is completelycleaned after each session. This will save you a lot of stress the next timeyou are painting that model you recently spent so much time assembling.
03-05-06.jpg
Photo 6 图片6
最后,由于油漆时有毒气体,为了身体健康,在喷漆的时候一定要上防护面罩,并保持通风。吸入各种各样的油漆,稀释剂可能会导致慢性呼吸系统疾病,千万要当心。我建议你多和家附近五金店,或者类似粉刷的专业人士交谈,找到最合适你喷涂的方式(或应该做哪些保护),减少对身体的伤害。好吧,现在该轮到说说怎么上底色啦。
Finally, be responsible and wear a particle maskand have proper ventilation when airbrushing. Breathing in fumes ceased by thedifferent thinners can result in long-term chronic health problems. I wouldrecommend speaking to the people at your local hardware store to find one thatbest works for you. Let’s now look at applying a basecoat.
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 楼主| 发表于 2018-9-4 14:02:20 | 显示全部楼层

AIRBRUSHING A BASECOAT 喷涂底色

本帖最后由 facewest 于 2018-9-4 15:40 编辑

AIRBRUSHING A BASECOAT 喷涂底色

现在,我将展示一些喷涂完美干净的漆面的小贴士。
NOW I AM GOING TO DEMONSTRATE SOME TIPS TO HELPYOU APPLY A GOOD SOUND BASECOAT FREE OF FLAWS SUCH AS DUST.  

我们从准备工作开始吧。喷涂之前要对模型进行一下清洁,检查并加固一下有可能松动的小部件,比如舱门啊,轮子啊,以防喷笔吹过弄错位了。有时候待喷的模型上会有一些金属部件,需要先上一层金属底漆。下面我们就一起看看怎么样均匀的在模型上喷涂底漆吧。
We will begin with preparation of themodel. It should be cleaned prior to having any paint applied. Securing smallparts such as hatches and wheels in order to keep them from being blown acrossthe bench by the airbrush is also handy. Sometimes the model contains metalparts that need to be primed. Then we will look at techniques for applying asmooth basecoat that evenly covers the model.
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Photo1 and 2 图片 1-2
素组后,我建议先用洗洁精和旧牙刷清洁一下模型表面,以除去可能影响漆面的脱模剂和灰尘,还有我们手上的油脂和助焊剂(如果你的模型用了焊接方式拼接蚀刻片的话)。
(另译者注:据我所知很多现在的模型板件已经可以省略这个步骤了,因为印象中脱模剂现在使用的情况貌似不多了,还往各路大神指点一下是不是这样。)
如果模型上有大量精细的蚀刻片,我会用旧笔刷轻轻的清洁那些脆弱的连接区域。注意,焊接区域经过清洁后可能会发生一些氧化的情况,先别管它。清洁好了之后,把模型放在纸巾上过一夜,等干。
After assembly I would always recommendfirst cleaning your model with dish washing detergent using an old toothbrush inorder to remove mould releasing agents, dust, oils from your fingers and liquidfluxes (if your model contains soldered PE parts) which might affect or bevisible through the basecoat. If your model has a lot of fine PE parts I woulduse an old paint brush to clean those delicate areas. Please note that the solderedareas will oxidize developing a bit of texture after you wash the model so donot clean it until you are ready to apply the basecoat. Afterwards place themodel onto a paper towel and let it dry overnight.


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Photo 3-7 图片3-7
大家看这几个JSU,T-34和虎式模型,我是分件上色的。因为这些小零件组装之后不太利于修改,所以我们在粘合之前先上色,以便后续工作的展开,比如说削切,打磨,掉漆等等。
也可以用蓝丁胶或者类似产品先把它们假组到车体上,然后统一上色,之后还可以方便的取下来。如果采用这种分件上色的方式,上色前要用遮盖带或者遮盖液把后续需要粘合零件的部位挡住。
The JSU, T-34 and Tiger I models areexamples of some of the details and sub-assemblies that I keep separate whenpainting a model. Keeping these parts un-glued allows you to handle them forbetter positioning during the application of time-consuming effects such aschipping. Most of these parts can easily be held in place using Blu-Tak whileairbrushing the basecoat. Make sure that you cover areas where parts are tolater be glued using masking tape or liquid mask.


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Photo 8 图片8
我们再来以这台E-50为例。在喷涂底色之前,我会在大面积蚀刻片上喷涂一点点底漆。你可以发现大多数涂料在塑料上的附着性都非常不错。如果在整个模型上都来一层底漆(补土)从某种程度上只是增加了一层涂层,甚至还因为涂料过厚而遮盖了细节。(译者注:到这里发现跟我的认知产生了好大的冲突,我的理解是必须要先上一层水补土,主要是为了增加附着力和发色,但亚当这里的理解难道是不用上水补土?大部分模型漆的附着力都足够。但我看图片里也明显是涂过水补土的状态啊。好吧,可能我对这段文字理解有一点偏差,总之我还是觉得水补土得上。)
Let's use this E-50 as an example. Prior to airbrushing the basecoat I applied a few coats of primer over the largerphoto-etched parts. You will find that most paints adhere well to the plasticof injection moulded kits. Priming the whole kit will just give you another layer of paint that might only help to hide fine details.

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Photo 9-10 图片9-10
我用田宫水漆调出了氧化浅红色作为底色。我始终保持整个色调偏亮一点,因为我知道后续的旧化步骤会让他变暗从而变成更为逼真的底漆红色。这次,我的稀释比例是漆和稀释剂比例1:2。告诉你们一个在调漆的时候,掌握漆的稀释程度的一个好方法。先把量杯倾斜过来,然后在正过来,观察漆流下来的速度,以判断漆的稀释程度。究竟稀释到什么程度,需要根据你自己的喜好和经验来。
(译者注:这个我们国内玩家有个普遍的认识就是“牛奶状”,其实什么是牛奶状我也拿捏不准。 所以对于新手来说,首先可以严格控制比例,然后再根据自己的喜好和喷出来的效果判断自己习惯稀一点还是浓一点。亚当这里提供了一个判断“牛奶状”的方法,就是观察流速,且算是一种参考方法吧。总之稀释比例这玩意,在做模型的时候真的是个玄学,无他,唯手孰尔。)
I mixed a tone representing a light redoxide primer using Tamiya paints. I kept the tone light as I knew theweathering steps applied after would darken it to a realistic looking primerred. I blended the tone to about one-part paint and two parts Lacquer thinner.Tipping the cup back and forth and viewing how quickly the paint runs back downthe side is a simple way for you to get an idea as to how much the paint isdiluted. How much you choose to thin the paint to your personal liking willcome with experience.



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Photo 11-13 图片11-13
喷涂底色时,我通常将气泵的气压设置为18PSI。你需要从至少4-5个角度喷涂模型(前面,背面,左侧等等),确保漆膜完全覆盖每个细节,所以需要采用多次薄喷的方式。油漆的稀释程度也非常重要。在喷涂时,保持喷笔来回的移动(不要在某一个区域过多停留),均匀的把涂料喷涂在模型表面,避免堆积。我通常会薄喷四到五层。
I usably set the regulator on my aircompressor to about 18 PSI when spraying a basecoat. You should always airbrushthe replica from at least four or five different angles (front, back right, andleft) to ensure that you have a good coat inside and around all of the details.As a result of this you will need to add numerous thin coats. It is importantthat your paint is properly diluted. Always keep your airbrush moving makingpasses with a circular motion evenly distributing the paint over the surfaceavoiding any buildup or puddles. I normally airbrush four to five even finecoats over the model.


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Photo 14-16 图片14-16
在喷涂小零件的时候,可以用胶带(双面胶),旧笔刷等工具来固定零件进行喷涂。我们可以充分的废物利用,比如图片16上这种树脂配件可以用来规定小零件,用蓝丁胶把舱门等这些小配件粘在上面可以方便的进行喷涂。
Tape and paper along with old paintbrushesare great for holding and positioning parts during airbrushing. Old unneededitems such as this resin accessory are also great for securing parts. Thehatches were stuck to this accessory using Blu-Tak.  


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Photo17-19 图片17-19
喷涂底色时有一个重要的注意事项,那就是喷笔的角度。按照图17所示,尤其是在喷角落部分时,要始终保持喷笔倾斜,不要垂直于模型表面(否则边角处的漆面覆盖不佳,从而引起漆面厚度不均匀)。倾斜着喷,可以保证油漆时从模型表面“拂过”这种感觉。如图18所示,如果将喷笔垂直着直接喷向零件可能会造成漆面过厚。结果就是在破坏了原本光滑的模型表面(厚度不均),同时也会影响后续的旧化操作,比如渍洗。
An important thing to keep in mind whileapplying a basecoat is the angle of your airbrush. As in photo 17, always keepthe airbrush slanted and not perpendicular to the surface you are paintingespecially in corners. This will ensure that all of the overspray is blown awayfrom the models surface. Pointing your airbrush directly toward the part as inphoto 18 may result in overspray building up causing areas of fine texture.This texture can cause unwanted matt regions on satin and glossy finishes whilealso affecting some of the upcoming weathering steps such as washes forexample.


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Photo 20-21 图片20-21
在整个模型获得了一个完美,光滑的底色之后。我经常会用笔涂的方式,用lifecolor或者AV水性漆在局部的不同零件上创造对比(译者注:可以参考第一期的“区分法”),或者说是色差。模型爱好者通常称这种技法为“镶板”。(译者注:在这个模型示例中,大家是否还记得第一期中那辆E-50的灰黑色挡泥板,也是用笔涂的方式在这个阶段做的。)
After obtaining a good smooth base coatover the entire model I will often brush different shades mixed form Lifecoloror Vallejo acrylics onto some of the different components for contrast. Modelersoften refer to this as “Paneling”. The black fenders on this example were alsobrush painted at this time.


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Photo 22-25 图片22-25
这些圆形通风口是通过蓝丁胶假组的,好处就是他没粘牢,涂完底色后。我们可以方便地把他拿下来喷涂浅灰色。有时我也会用AV的哑光保护漆来一层,确保所有漆面的光泽度统一。
These round vents are one example as to theadvantage of temporarily attaching components by means of Blu-Tak instead ofgluing them permanently. After airbrushing the basecoat I was able to removethis piece and quickly airbrush the light grey tone representing the zincphosphate primer. A few coats of Vallejo matt were used to finish the flatbase-coat insuring that the brush painted acrylics and primer red surfaces had aunified matt texture.


总结一下吧,首先我还是强烈建议在喷涂之前把模型用洗洁精和温水好好清洗一下。另外,尽可能的对一些需要后续单独上色或旧化的零件假组,方便取下,从而可以获得更好的效果,也能在后续旧化过程中节省很多时间。此外,大家也看到除了喷涂单一的底色之外,我们还笔涂的细节,从而在一些部分获得了对比。接下来来看看怎么喷涂迷彩和相关的注意事项吧。
I strongly recommend that you always cleaneverything with dish washing detergent and warm water prior to airbrushing. Tryto keep as many components and sub-assemblies removable from the model aspossible. This will let you easily position the parts allowing for betterresults while also permitting you to save time during painting and weatheringas you will see. You can also see that a basecoat can consist of a few stepsaside from airbrushing such as brush painting details to get some contrastamongst parts. A few nice coats of matt varnish, in this case, also whereapplied. Let’s now move on to airbrushing a camouflage and some things toremember while doing so.
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 楼主| 发表于 2018-9-4 14:02:43 | 显示全部楼层

Airbrushing a camouflage 喷涂迷彩

本帖最后由 facewest 于 2018-9-4 16:45 编辑

Airbrushing a camouflage 喷涂迷彩
不瞒你们说,喷涂迷彩一直不是我的强项。。
Airbrushing camouflages has never been a strength of mine.
在做这类模型时,尤其是二战战场上的那些模型,我有时甚至会感到紧张。通过观察和参考老照片中的场景,可以避免把这类模型做的很僵硬。在这里面我呈现给大家一些方法,帮助我们做出更加自然的迷彩伪装。
I sometimes feel a bit nervous whenapplying these types of patterns especially those applied in the field duringWorld War Two. Being tense and a bit stiff can detract from the natural lookoften observed in photos. Here I will demonstrate a few methods that I havedeveloped to help me obtain a more natural-looking field-appliedcamouflage.  
如我前面所说,您需要熟悉您的喷笔和所使用的油漆涂料。用双动喷笔来做。在我喷涂迷彩的时候,很喜欢用稀释后的田宫水漆,另外Lifecolor水漆我用着也很称手,毒性也比较小。不同品牌的油漆有自己的特点,您需要找到一款你觉得最舒服的油漆。当然要始终注意的就是老生常谈的气压和稀释比例!
As I said earlier you should be familiarwith your airbrush and the paints you are working with. A double actionairbrush should be used for these tasks. Tamiya paints diluted with lacquerthinner have always worked well for me when airbrushing a camouflage. Lifecolordiluted with their thinner is another and less toxic mix that I have hadsuccess with. Remember that different brands of paint have their owncharacteristics and you should find one that you are comfortable with. Alsokeep in mind the air pressure and paint-to-thinner ratio.
接下来我们要在这辆T-34上用田宫水漆喷涂迷彩。这里我用的比例是:漆4:稀释剂6。气泵气压为18-20PSI。请记住,根据您的设备不同,这两个参数可能会发生变化。(不用拘泥比例数字,仅做参考)
The camouflage we will apply to this T-34will be done using Tamiya paints diluted with lacquer thinner. The mix usedhere was about 40% paint and 60% thinner. My air compressor was set at 18 to 20PSI. Remember that this paint to thinner ratio and compressor settings couldvary a bit depending on the equipment you are using.
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Photo1-2 图片1-2
别忘了开始前在纸上练习一下。OK,练习好了之后,我开始在模型上喷涂了迷彩图案的轮廓。如图所示,喷嘴要尽量靠近模型,保证线条边缘更紧密。在操作喷笔时,只要轻轻拉动扳机,小出气量即可。保持喷笔运行,别停留。如果喷完发现对图案不满意怎么办?没关系,可以用底色把不需要的部分遮盖掉,重新再来一次。
After practicing on a piece of paper Iairbrushed an outline of the pattern over the model. The nozzle should be closethe subject as seen in the photos in order to keep the edges of the linestighter. You only want to gently pull back on the trigger of your double actionairbrush spraying a very light stream while always keeping the brush in motion.If you find that you are unhappy with the pattern of the outline you can simplycover the unwanted parts with the base colour and then reapply them.
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Photo 3-6 图片3-6
一旦迷彩图案满意了,我就用喷笔慢慢的将这些轮廓填满。这样迷彩的效果就初步出来了。完成之后,我还会喷涂透明保护漆,一方面保护漆面,更重要的是让底色和迷彩色部分的漆面保持统一。这个例子里我喷了田宫X-22透明清漆,这对后续的渍洗非常有帮助。
Once content with the pattern I carefullyfill it in. After the camouflage I usually apply the markings then airbrush afew good coats of varnish over the model. The varnish will help to ensure thatthe tones used for the basecoat and those of the camouflage contain the sametype of finish. In this case I added a satin finish that would be better forthe anticipated washes in the upcoming steps.
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Photo 7 图片7
正如我刚才提到的。喷涂迷彩时,我们其实可以在底色和迷彩色之间随心切换,以达到您想表达或者满意的效果。这个图片中通过在底色上喷涂绿色线条来作为这辆17cm加农炮上的线性迷彩图案。喷完绿色后其实可以再用回沙黄色来填补不满意的图案区域,把多余的绿色涂掉。
As I mentioned, switching back and forthbetween colors when airbrushing a camouflage will allow you to tweak unwantedareas obtaining better results. The tight linear camouflage pattern on the 17cmcannon of this Geschuzwagen Tiger was obtained by applying the green camouflageover the basecoat. I went back over the areas of the pattern which I wasunhappy with using the sand yellow basecoat.
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Photo 8 图片8
在底色和伪装色之间来回切换用以修复和完善并不是唯一的方法。比如在这个已经经过色调调节的四号坦克上喷涂迷彩就需要格外的小心。因为它的底色可是相当的复杂,想用底色覆盖的方式来调整迷彩变得困难很多。本书的后面我们将会介绍在CM技法涂装的底色上喷迷彩。
Switching back and forth between the colorsof the basecoat and the tones of a camouflage in order to fix mistakes is notalways an option. Much care had to be taken when applying the camouflage overthis Panzer IV featuring Colour Modulation. The gradients in the basecoat wouldhave made covering the unwanted areas of the camouflage very difficult reducingthe natural shifting of the tones. We will cover applying camouflages overColour Modulation later in this book.
好了,又到了总结时间。在喷涂时,特别喷迷彩的时候,油漆的稀释和气泵的气压起着至关重要的作用。所以一定要在旧模型或者纸张上练习一下图案,确保万无一失。根据对象不同,您可以选择在底色和迷彩色之间来回切换,以获得最佳效果。好了,涂好底色和迷彩之后。今天的喷涂工作告一段落,我们要把喷笔清理干净了。如果你熟悉你的喷笔,这个应该不太困难,接下来我们就来谈谈清洗喷笔吧。
How much you dilute your paint and what yourcompressor is set to plays an important role when airbrushing especially duringspraying a camouflage. Practice your pattern first on an old model or piece ofpaper to make sure that everything is mixed and adjusted properly. Depending onthe subject you may have the option of switching back and forth between thebasecoat and the colour of the camouflage in order to obtain optimal results.After applying the basecoat and the camouflage you should clean the airbrushprior to putting it away. If you are familiar with your airbrush this shouldnot be too difficult as I will show you next.
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 楼主| 发表于 2018-9-4 14:02:53 | 显示全部楼层

CLEANING THE AIRBRUSH 清洗喷笔

本帖最后由 facewest 于 2018-9-4 17:53 编辑

CLEANING THE AIRBRUSH 清洗喷笔
喷涂完底色和迷彩之后,你恐怕会成就感满满。
So you just got your basecoat andcamouflage finished and you are happy with the results.
现在重要的是要花一点时间来彻底清洁喷笔了。拉一拉扳机看看是否有松动,可以快速的判断喷笔的喷嘴内部是否有余漆残留。如果有这种情况,可能说明你的喷笔需要彻底清洁了.(译者注:有没有大神来指点一下这是个什么原理呢?)
It is now important that you devote a bitof time to disassemble and thoroughly clean the airbrush. One can quickly tellif any paint has built up inside of the nozzle of a double action airbrush byfeeling if the trigger has become slightly loose when pulling back on it. Ifyour trigger has any play it most likely means that your airbrush needs to becleaned.
不同类型的喷笔设计可能不尽相同,有些喷笔的拆卸方式也有所不同。我这款田宫超细HG,也是业余模型爱好者中非常普遍的选择之一。我们以此为例来做个演示吧,大部分喷笔的清洁步骤都和这个相同。
There are many different types of airbrushdesigns and some disassemble rather differently. This Tamiya superfine HG-SFmodel is a rather common choice amongst hobbyists. Let’s use this as an exampleas the same cleaning steps will apply to most other type of airbrushes.
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Photo1 图片1
如前所述,最好使用和油漆相同品牌的稀释剂或洗笔液来清洁喷笔。用不同品牌的洗笔液或稀释剂有可能会导致喷嘴内残余油漆凝固,从而堵塞喷嘴的情况。那就得花更多的时间来清了。如果你非常了解你常使用品牌油漆的成分,可以在当地的五金店,绘画工具店,甚至是药店买到替代产品,如异丙醇或酒精。
As already mentioned it is best to use thethinner or brush cleaner offered by the brand of paint you are using to cleanyour airbrush. Mixing different brands of paint and thinner together can causethe remaining paint inside of the nozzle to coagulate making miserable clogs thattake much more time to clean. If you are knowledgeable of the brands younormally use, there are less expensive alternatives such as isopropyl alcoholor white spirits available in your local hardware, art and pharmaceuticalstores.
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Photo2 图片2
在涂装完之前那个E-50的氧化红底色后,我只需加入一点稀释剂,来清理喷笔。方法是:我把稀释剂倒入喷壶内,接下来堵住喷嘴,同时拉动扳机让空气回流。这时候会产生气泡,它们有助于清除喷笔内部大部分的涂料,回流一会儿后,可以倒掉或者直接喷掉。
After applying the red oxide basecoat to myE50 I simply took the same lacquer thinner, used to thin the paint during theapplication of the base coat, to clean out the airbrush. I like to start byplacing some of the thinner into the cup. Next I block the end of the nozzlewhile pulling the trigger forcing the air back up through the cup. The bubblescreated will help to clean most of the paint away from the interior of theairbrush. After you can dump out the dirty thinner and/or spray it through thenozzle.
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Photo3-4 图片3-4
接下来拧下喷嘴(译者注:这里千万要小心,用扳手拧喷嘴的时候用力不要太猛,容易断,那就彻底悲剧了),将针头从后面取出,然后在餐巾纸上轻轻地擦干净。
Next unscrew the nozzle, slide the needlethrough the front and wipe it clean on a piece of tissue paper.

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Photo 5 图片5
随着喷笔用了一段时间之后,通常会在喷嘴内部会有油漆和灰尘堆积。您可以用针(译者注:淘宝上有很多清理喷笔的工具卖)小心的清理喷头和喷嘴内部,把余漆残留弄出来。把喷笔拆开清洁后,放一夜让它干燥,第二天再组装起来。
Over time there will usually be some of paintand dust collected inside of the nozzle. You can carefully scrape the inside ofthe nozzle and push the dry paint through the end using the needle. Aftersimply place the disassembled airbrush down and let it dry overnight beforeassembling it again in the morning.
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 楼主| 发表于 2018-9-4 14:03:05 | 显示全部楼层

BRUSH PAINTING BASE COATS AND CAMOUFLAGES笔涂底色和迷彩

本帖最后由 facewest 于 2018-9-4 18:31 编辑

BRUSH PAINTING BASE COATSAND CAMOUFLAGES笔涂底色和迷彩

喷涂虽然是模型爱好者在涂装时的首选方式,但也有笔涂更适合的情况。
Airbrushing is usually the preferred meansby modellers for applying coats of paint but there will be cases where a paintbrush is more suitable.

笔涂通常需要花更多的时间,更多的耐心,更好的手法来避免笔痕。如果你足够耐心,油漆稀释得当,薄涂多层,在涂刷大面积时笔涂有一定的优势。
Brush painting requires more time. Moreskill is also needed in order to avoid textures, like brush strokes, after thepaint has dried that will affect the washes. If you are patient and thin thepaint properly, brush painting large areas has its advantages.

在这个例子中,我们来笔涂一种硬边迷彩。有很多遮盖的方法来喷涂硬边迷彩。可以用遮盖带,遮盖液甚至是那种有粘性的油泥。问题是这些方法通常都还需要在边缘再进行一些修饰才能达到满意的效果,这还没有计算切割遮盖带创造复杂的迷彩图案所需花费的大量时间,用遮盖液可能会弄的到处都是,油泥可能会破坏蚀刻片。通过笔涂绘制硬边迷彩就可以很好的控制了,而且颜色的边缘更加犀利。
In this example we are going to apply ahardedge camouflage scheme. There are a number of methods for masking andairbrushing hard edge camouflages. Cut pieces of masking tape, liquid mask andeven silly putty can be used. The problem is that these methods often requiresome touch up around the edges. Time is also needed to properly cut the piecesof tape to create intricate patterns. Liquid mask can be messy. Silly puttywill break fine photoetched details. Painting a complex hard-edge camouflage bybrush will give you more control while allowing you tighter edges betweencolors.

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在本节中,我将向您展示如何在这辆JSU-152上使用笔涂的方式呈现复杂的硬边迷彩。不幸的是,我只有一张JSU-152的照片,模型也是参照这张图片,在这种情况下,我需要仔细研究照片中的迷彩图案,判断它在照片中的侧面看起来是什么样的。
In this section I am going to now show youhow I applied a complex hard-edged camouflage onto this JSU-152 using a paintbrush. Unfortunately I only had one photo of the JSU-152 on which this replicawas modeled. In this case I needed to study the camouflage in the photocarefully to get an idea as to how it might appear on the sides out of view inthe photo.


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Photo1 图片1
先用Lifecolor漆喷涂绿色底色。然后我用铅笔描绘迷彩图案。
After airbrushing a coat of green over themodel using Lifecolor paints I drew the camouflage pattern using a pencil.


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Photo 2-4 图片2-4
我用AV手涂漆调制了第一种色调,然后用水稀释了一下达到所谓的“牛奶状”。稀释涂料好处是我们可以得到更光滑的表面,笔痕更少。接下来我用笔刷开始描绘迷彩的轮廓。(还记得之前铅笔画的轮廓么,按那个走就行啦。)
I mixed the first tone from acrylics thenadded some water thinning the paint to the consistency of milk. Thinning thepaints will result in a smoother finish with less brush strokes evident. Itraced the outlines of the camouflage pattern using a new brush.

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Photo 5-6 图片5-6
涂完轮廓后,我开始把这个迷彩区域填充起来。通常要薄涂个五、六层才能在绿色的底色上获得良好的色彩效果。我们笔涂的时候通常从浅色调开始,然后涂深色调。在这个例子中,实车是深绿色底色,所以我在顶部车体,上部装甲结构,底盘和车轮上都喷涂了绿色。选择了这种涂装意味着我需要在较深色的绿色上涂更多的沙色来遮盖深绿色底色。(译者注:因为绿色比沙色要深,用浅色遮盖深色需要涂更多层才能完全遮盖。)
After tracing the pattern I painted thefirst coat of the tan areas making up the camouflage. Five to six of thethinned coats of the lighter sand colour were needed to get a good opaque toneover the darker green. When brush painting it is usually best to start with thelighter tones then move onto the darks. In the case of this replica, the actualvehicle contained a dark green basecoat. I opted to airbrush the green tonefirst finishing the upper hull, superstructure, chassis and wheels all at thesame time. Choosing to paint the model in this manner resulted in me needing toapply more layers of sand over the darker green.  

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Photo 7-8 图片7-8
接下来开始涂棕色了,依次是黑色。在手涂迷彩时,您先得把每种颜色的漆调好,装在调色皿或者油漆瓶中,这样如果出现对图案不满意或者出错需要修改的时候,你可以快速的用相应的颜色完成。(译者注:手涂的时候修修补补肯定是免不了的,大师都是这样,所以各位手涂党,你们的耐心我跪了!)我还会用纸上切割出模板的方式来喷涂车上的标识。最后,我会对整个模型喷涂一层保护漆。
I moved onto the brown colour and finishedwith the black. When painting a camouflage in this manner always first mixplenty of each tone keeping them sealed in jars. Having each of the colorsavailable will allow you to quickly paint back over areas where you mademistakes or are unhappy with the pattern. Once I went back and touched up a fewareas I airbrushed the markings using stencils cut from paper. After Iairbrushed a few coats of satin varnish over the entire model.

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Photo 9-11 图片9-11
还是这个例子,最好完成参考图片中可以看到的所有迷彩图案。完成可见部分之后,我就更容易推倒出另外一侧的图案看起来应该是个什么样子。大家看到另外一辆虎王上的迷彩也是笔涂出来的。我看到过很多这种阿登战役中著名的虎王伏击迷彩照片,但令人沮丧的是,我无法找到更多有关上车体和炮塔顶部图案的图像资料。所以一旦我完成了可参考图片中的每一个面之后,我就可以设计出相对准确的上车体和炮塔顶部的图案。在做这个虎王时,我先用了浅沙黄色调作为底色开始,而不是用深绿色或红棕色。根据我们要制作的对象,往往从浅色调开始会比较好一些。在下一期中,我们将讨论运用CM技法(色调调节)涂装底色和迷彩。
It is best to finish all of the sides thatyou can distinguish in your reference photos first. After completing thevisible parts it was easier for me to imagine what the patterns on the sidesout of view might have looked like. The camouflage on the Tiger II was alsopainted by brush. I have seen many photos of this factory applied ambushcamouflage pattern from all sides of these famous Tigers seen during theArdennes offensive. To my dismay I was unable to find many images clearlyshowing the pattern on the upper hull and turret. Once I finished applying thecamouflage onto each side referencing the photos, I was then able to designwhat might have been a fairly accurate pattern onto the tops of the hull andturret. In the case of the Tiger II I started with the light sand yellow tonethan finished with the darker green and red-brown colors. Again it is usuallybetter to start with the lighter tones depending on the subject. In the nextpart we will continue with base coat and camouflage application with the ColourModulation Style.


(本期完,敬请期待第三期)
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发表于 2018-9-4 14:22:48 | 显示全部楼层
谢谢分享,很赞!
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发表于 2018-9-4 16:14:20 | 显示全部楼层
内容非常好 非常扎实
来自安卓客户端来自安卓客户端
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发表于 2018-9-4 16:20:03 | 显示全部楼层
谢楼主分享。
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发表于 2018-9-4 17:20:22 | 显示全部楼层
好东西
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