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[原创资料翻译] [连载] 亚当的模型指导书 下册 第九期 常规掉漆

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发表于 2018-10-15 13:51:00 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
本帖最后由 facewest 于 2018-10-15 14:30 编辑

后天要出国一周,所以这次提前到周一更新。书中的这个章节将会介绍非常全面的掉漆技法。内容比较多,因此我按照亚当的思路把它分为了两期:本期介绍常规掉漆技法,下期介绍发胶掉漆。这一期有四个例子,也会分成四个楼层介绍掉漆效果的不同应用。多图多文,大家耐心看吧!!之前有同好问我这本书一共有多少章节,这本书一共十八章,其中第一章属于前言性质,所以翻译是从第二章开始的。掉漆效果是本书的第10章,到这里本书已经翻译完一半。在这段时间,非常有幸认识了很多模友,给了我很多的帮助。做模型是一个很孤独的爱好,最难得的就是能有同好,交流技术,互相吹嘘。 也感谢各位前辈和版主的鼓励,让我觉得做这样的事还是有点意义的。最后,我不是什么高手,别看我嘴炮吹的响,但我做的模型是真的渣,自己能看得过去的都屈指可数,好在我仍在继续探索的路上,还在堆满了零件和涂料的书桌前流连忘返着......

前几期传送门:
第一期:色彩区分 http://www.moxdao.com/thread-56135-1-1.html
第二期:底色和迷彩喷涂  http://www.moxdao.com/thread-56231-1-1.html
第三期:色调调节  http://www.moxdao.com/thread-56473-1-1.html
第四期:滤镜: http://www.moxdao.com/thread-57160-1-1.html
第五期: 图案和标识徽章  http://www.moxdao.com/thread-57797-1-1.html
第六期:发胶掉漆制作冬季涂装  http://www.moxdao.com/thread-57939-1-1.html

第八期:褪色和添加阴影 http://www.moxdao.com/thread-58663-1-1.html

声明:所有图书和图片的版权均归原作者和原出版社所有,任何人不得用于商业用途。翻译稿暂时只在模型岛放出,欢迎转载,但请提前联系本人。非常感谢!

PAINT CHIPPING EFFECTS 掉漆效果

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通常在做完褪色效果后,我开始做掉漆。
After working with oil paints on the finishof a replica I usually start the chipping steps.


模型爱好者通常把油漆的剥落,划痕,漆面的部分损坏等等统称为掉漆效果。根据现实中实际情况的推测,这些磨损可能是由于碰擦,弹片碰撞,自然变旧或坦克乘员的日常活动造成的。掉漆可能非常的琐碎的分布在车体的各个部分,但就像其他重要的技法一样,在每个步骤中呈现出来的不同的掉漆效果能够大大的提升模型的真实程度。同时,还能够在细节间创建对比。因此,我非常认真的对待掉漆这个环节,甚至可以说掉漆是我制作模型过程中的标志性环节。
Modellers refer to chipping as replicatingchips, scratches and other flaws in the paint. These flaws are supposedlycaused form impacts, fragments, weathering and the crew. Chipping can be verytedious but if all of the different steps are applied properly chipping, likesome other important techniques, can really enhance the authenticity of yourmodel while also creating contrast between details. Therefore I take thesesteps very seriously and have made the chipping process a signature step in thework I publish.




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本期中,我会带来一些例子,呈现制作掉漆的不同方法和效果。第一种方法是非常常见的在底色或者迷彩上面做的海绵掉漆和笔涂掉漆。现在模友已经把这种技法称之为“传统技法”了,可能意为着它已经过时了,因为现在似乎更流行的就是发胶掉漆了。
第二种技法是在前面冬季涂装中用到的发胶法,这种方法当然也可以用在掉漆流程中。这个技法在制作大量锈蚀和灼烧效果的战车时尤其受到模友欢迎,但它也可以用来制作精细的掉漆效果。好吧,接下来我们就从“传统”的笔涂掉漆开始吧。
In this section I have some differentexamples for creating chipping effects. The first approach is the more commonmethod of carefully painting chips over the basecoat and camouflage usingpractices such as a sponge and/or a fine paintbrush. Modellers now refer tothis way of creating chips as, “the traditional method” because hairspray has alsobecome a popular means for this task.
The second approach that I will demonstrateis the hairspray technique explained in the chapter about applying a winterwhite wash, this method can also be used to make chipping effects. This methodis more popular with modellers when they are finishing old rusty wrecked andburnt out AFVs but fine chips can also made with this method. Let’s begin withsome examples of creating chips using a fine paintbrush.





CHIPPING WITH A SPONGE ANDPAINT BRUSH 笔涂和海绵掉漆
我发现在比例模型上体现细小的磨损和掉漆效果时,用笔涂和海绵掉漆这种“传统技法”反而可以控制的非常好。
这一节将包括传统掉漆法的四个例子。首先,我们会继续用JSU-152来演示我通常用的常规掉漆效果。其次我们会在LVT侧面进行重度掉漆。第三个例子,我会展示在IV号坦克的裙甲上呈现重度的掉漆和划痕效果。第四个例子,我会介绍如何在防磁装甲表面应用掉漆。
I find that the traditional method ofchipping using a sponge and fine brush in conjunction with other techniquesstill allows for the best control when replicating fine flaws on paint thatlook to scale.
This segment will contain four examples ofusing the traditional chipping process. First we continue with the JSU-152 to demonstrate a regular example ofchipping effects that I apply onto most of the models that I finish. Second wewill be creating heavy chips onto the side of an LVT. For the third part I willshow an example of painting heavy chips and scratches onto the exterior of a setof Panzer IV Schürzen. In the fourth part we will look at applying chippingeffects onto Zimmerit surfaces.





STANDARD CHIPPING 常规掉漆技法

首先要说明的是:掉漆流程其实包含了多种技法。
The chipping processes that I use is made upfrom a number of techniques.




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我将用一些不同的模型来呈现海绵和手涂掉漆,除此之外还有一些其他重要的技法,比如斑点,锈蚀,这些同样可以用来呈现掉漆。所有这些技法一起作用,来让模型展现真实的外观。在掉漆流程中还有一种方法也很有用,就是利用石墨(译者注:例如铅笔)在掉漆区上产生金属光泽的方法,但这个最好再旧化结束后使用。我们后面再进行讨论。
I will use a few different models to showchipping using a sponge and fine brush. I will also demonstrate other very importantmethods such as speckling and applying rust tones that should also be appliedwith chipping effects. All of these techniques can be used together resultingin a very authentic appearance. The method of blending graphite to give ametallic shine over areas containing lots of chips is also important to theprocess but should be applied after weathering. I will discuss using graphiteto enhance chipping and metal surfaces later.



需要注意的是,掉漆很容易做过头。所以,最重要的是你需要有一把高质量的细笔刷。然后做掉漆的涂料也要尽可能的稀释,另外我们自己做掉漆的时候一定要保证放松和专注。
It can be very easy to overdo chipping. Afine, hi-quality new brush is most important. Your paint also needs to bethinned properly. You should be relaxed and focused.




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在做掉漆之前,有必要参考一些实车的照片。因为,根据制造和使用车辆的地区不同,参战地区或国家不同,掉漆的数量,区域,形状都会不同。不仅如此,同样性质的掉漆在车辆的各个部位上也会有很大的不同。例如这辆T-55维修车上,大家对比一下车体下部,挡泥板,以及舱门这些地方,注意看一下各自掉漆的尺寸和强度差异。我在涂装这个模型的时候参考了这辆叙利亚T-55的实车照片,发现这辆战车被民用涂料反复涂刷过多次的迷彩。所以这辆车的不同部件上的掉漆呈现出程度不一的,大面积的剥落。另一幅图片中看到的T-64的油漆的磨损是另外一种情况,这辆在博物馆里陈列的T-64,经常有参观者爬到车上,随着时间的推移,我们可以看到这种人为造成的磨损是什么样的。此外,我也建议大家注意观察一下周围有没有工地,里面的工程车辆能够给你做掉漆提供很好的参考。
Study reference photos beforehand.Sometimes the amounts, shapes and sizes of paint chips can differ greatlydepending on the location, conflict and/or country where the vehicle wasmanufactured and used. The shapes and sizes of chips can also differ greatly onvarious parts of an AFV such as this T-55 recovery vehicle.  Note the differences in the sizes andintensities of the chips when comparing the lower hull, fenders and hatches toeach other. The photos of the Syrian T-55 that I studied when painting thisreplica was camouflaged more than once using civilian paint. The chips ondifferent parts of this vehicle had come off in very large rounded shapes atdifferent intensities. The worn camouflage on this T-64 frequently climbed onby museum visitors is another example of how large amounts of paint can be wornaway over time.  Viewing constructionequipment can also be a great way of understanding chipping patterns.




这期中的JSU-152展现了我是如何在一辆常规装甲车辆模型上做出掉漆效果的。所以,这就是为什么我将这个小节称之为“常规掉漆”。我们从暴露在外的较大的金属零件开始进行手涂,包括铰链,舱门和外部邮箱支架等等。
The JSU-152 in this chapter represents anexample of the level to which I perform chipping effects onto a standard armourmodel supposedly containing a factory finish. This is why I am referring tothis part as “Standard Chipping”. We will start by painting all of the largeexposed metallic areas such as the hinges, hatch openings and the mounts forthe external fuel tanks.





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Photo 1-3 图片1-3
在最开始阶段,我会用深灰色加入稀释剂再兑入少量的水,调制出金属色。然后开始在细节上手涂大面积的掉漆,呈现金属裸露效果。在这个例子中,这些区域包括外部燃料箱支架,舱门的开口处。
To begin I usually mix a dark grey tonewith acrylics thinned with a little water. I start painting details where largeamounts of chipping or bare metal will be present. In this example these areasincluded mounts for the external fuel tanks and openings around the hatches.





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Photo 4 图片4
接下来,我通常会用海绵掉漆法继续掉漆流程。海绵可以让您快速的应用随机掉漆效果。在这个例子中,我们用迷彩色中绿色底色作为掉漆色。在这种多层涂装的模型上应用掉漆效果时,掉漆色与底色的匹配非常重要,否则看上去就有很重的违和感。我用lifecolor或者AV的水性漆在做这个步骤。在这张图片中可以看到我对照悬架的颜色来匹配掉漆的颜色。
I usually continue the process using thesponge technique. A sponge allows you to quickly apply fine random chippingeffects. In this example we will be applying chips of the green base coatsupposedly evident through the camouflage colors. When you are applyingchipping effects over layers of paint it is very important that that you matchthe colour with thebase coat or the effects will look unconvincing. Acrylicssuch as Lifecolor and Vallejo work well for this step. Here I am matching thebase colour of the suspension parts.   





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Photo 5-6 图片5-6
海绵的选择多种多样,那种用于包装的海绵效果很好。只要在大块的海绵上撕下一小块就好。把海绵的锯齿状边缘稍微修剪成圆形,可以用镊子轻松夹住就好。
There are all kinds of sources for you toobtain sponges that can be used for chipping effects. Packing sponges usuallywork very well. Just get a large portion and rip off small pieces as you needit. Cut away the jagged edges creating a nice circular shape that you caneasily hold using a set of tweezes.





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Photo 7-10 图片7-10
注意,在把海绵涂到模型上之前,首先要在纸上点一点,把多余的涂料擦掉。(译者注:保证海绵上有一层薄薄的漆就行,否则很容易做过。)然后只要在模型上轻轻的按压海绵,就可以留下很细小的掉漆效果。在这个例子的JSU-152上,我把底色的绿色点到迷彩色上,创造大面积掉漆效果。使用区域包括边角,挡泥板和其他容易磨损的区域(译者注:掉漆区域通常集中在边角处,舱门边角,乘员上下车位置等等容易磨损的区域,具体大家可以根据自己的经验来,观察一下工地上的挖掘机,推土机等工程车辆是个很好的参考方式)。
It very important that you first remove allof the excess paint from the sponge onto a piece of paper before using it toreplicate paint chips on the model. You only want it to press the spongelightly leaving very fine chips. On this JSU-152 I applied the base green chipsonto the camouflage colors where large amounts of chips in the paint might bepresent. These areas included the corners, fenders and other exposed componentssubject to wear and tear.   





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Photo 11 图片11
海绵掉漆是在小的细节上应用掉漆的快速方法,比如工具夹,缆绳支架等,这些暴露在外的小细节特别容易磨损。在对小细节应用海绵掉漆的时候,为了控制范围,可以用遮盖带把周围遮盖起来,保证掉漆的范围就在你想要的区域内,不会做到外面。(译者注:比如这个例子中,为了不让掉漆做到车体上,亚当用遮盖带固定了海绵掉漆的区域。
The sponge can be a quick means forapplying chips on small details such as tool clamps and cable mounts. In thiscase tape was employed to keep the chips confined only to the mounts and awayfrom the hull of this Tiger I. Small exposed details such as these aresometimes more prone to chipping.





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Photo 12-14 图片12-14
好了,接下来就使用笔刷更加精准的控制掉漆了。我用丙烯颜料混合了和底漆相匹配的绿色,用水稀释到牛奶状。至于什么是牛奶状似乎很难解释,你只要用笔刷占点涂料,然后垂直提起来,看着漆几乎要从笔刷上滴下来就可以了。
当然,同样重要的就是笔刷。我通常使用温莎牛顿的7系列000号笔刷来做掉漆,成本虽然高了点,但这些笔刷的笔尖可以长期保持稳定不分叉,让你在手涂时获得很好的效果。译者注:工欲善其事必先利其器,当然没错了!我之前网上搜了下,温莎牛顿7系列的价格绝对对得起土豪货的称谓!大家如果预算有限的话,可以选用其他品牌的貂毛面相笔也是个不错的替代,当然一分价钱一分货,大家熟练了之后再去选择要不要买更好的笔。
Now it was time to start adding morecontrolled chips using a paint brush. I carefully mixed a green that matchedthe basecoat using acrylics. I thinned the colour to about the consistency ofmilk using water. Thin the paint until the mixture is almost falling from thebrush in drops when you remove it from the pallet.
Equally important is your paint brush. Iusually use a Winsor & Newtan Series Seven 000 Sable for this task.Although more costly these brushes will keep a nice pointed tip for quite awhile allowing you to obtain very fine controlled chips.





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Photo 15 图片15
笔刷蘸好漆之后,先在纸上抹一下,把多余的漆擦除。
After dipping the brush first wipe the excesspaint away onto a piece of paper.





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Photo 16-19 图片16-19
在笔涂掉漆的时候千万不要尝试去“画”掉漆,而是用笔刷轻轻的点。(译者注:这里的意思是,在笔涂掉漆的时候画笔千万别长时间停留在模型上,别用描线的手法去画掉漆,而是一小点一小点不规则的戳在模型上,注意手法!)确保笔刷始终垂直于模型表面。在这个步骤中可以在之前一步海绵掉漆的基础上随机的选择区域的扩大掉漆面积,从而产生更加拟真的效果。
Do not try to draw the chips but insteaduse a light tapping motion with the brush. Make sure that your brush is alwaysperpendicular to the surface of the model. During this step apply larger chipsover the finer ones created by the sponge giving a more random authenticlooking effect.  





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Photo 20-21 图片20-21
在一些现实中明显会出现较多磨损的金属表面加大掉漆面积。在这个例子中,这些区域包括一些可拆卸部件的安装位置(译者注:因为实际中经常拿上拿下肯定会出现较多的磨损。),例如外部燃料箱,还有一些金属细节,比如图中的这个固定带也会呈现较多的磨损。
Add larger chips onto metal surfaces wherelots of chipping will be evident. On this example these areas include placeswhere removable components are mounted such as the exterior fuel tanks. Finerflexible sheet metal details such as strapping will also contain a lot ofchipping effects.




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Photo 22 图片 22
在笔涂了这一轮掉漆之后,可以把油漆再稀释一点,用细笔尖轻轻扫过模型表面。这样就能在迷彩上添加微妙的划痕。
After applying the chips by brush, thin theacrylic paint further so you can add subtle scratches over the camouflage.





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Photo 23-25 图片23-25
接着,我调亮一种比底色更浅一点的绿色,用这种颜色来做新鲜的刮擦(晕,刮擦还分新鲜不新鲜哟……)同样,我们还是用海绵,在模型的绿色区域添加了浅绿色的掉漆效果。
Next I mixed another shade of green lighterthan the base green colour. These chips where to represent fresh layers ofscraped paint. Again, starting with the sponge I added light green chips ontoall of the green areas of the finish.





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Photo 26 图片26
海绵掉漆也非常适合在那些可能造成大量磨损的细节上快速制作掉漆效果。例如行走装置。这些细节在我们通常的操作中会应用其他旧化效果和环境效果,所以有时候并没有必要花费大量的时间来处理,所以我只用了海绵做了一轮掉漆,并没有用笔涂做更多的细节掉漆。
A sponge is also great for quickly creatinglarge numbers of chips on details where the paint might receive lots of wearsuch as the running gear. These details usually end up getting mostly coveredwith weathering effects and earth tones. It is sometimes unnecessary to devotemuch time to details such as these with tedious effects such as chipping with afine brush.   





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Photo 27-29 图片27-29
接下来,我们再次在之前浅绿色的海绵掉漆效果上用笔刷做修饰。并且在迷彩色上用浅绿色添加部分掉漆效果。
Again the light green chips created withthe sponge were touched up using a fine brush. As with the green lighter shadesof sand yellow and brown chips were added to these camouflage tones.





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Photo 30-31 图片30-31
上面这轮结束后,我开始准备添加深棕色的掉漆色(译者注:具体颜色大家可以参考一下微客有款掉漆色的水性漆,我通常用这个来做这个色调的掉漆。)与前面的绿色掉漆一样,我把油漆稀释到牛奶状,并且加入一点沙色来调亮整体色调,让深棕色和其他颜色之间形成更柔和的对比度。
At this point I was ready to add dark brownsteel chips. Like with the green chips I thinned the paint to about theconsistency of milk. A little sand was added to lighten the tone resulting in asofter contrast between the dark brown and the rest of the colors.




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Photo 32-36 图片32-36
在纸上擦除多余的油漆之后,我在前面的掉漆位置加入深棕色的掉漆色,但注意,不是覆盖全部掉漆区域。您可以在图片35-36中看到,掉漆的部位其实是很多种掉漆色混合在一起呈现出来的效果,这样更有真实性。在这种复杂的迷彩上做掉漆(译者注:尤其是这种多轮多层掉漆)可能是单调乏味又耗时的,但对于我们得到的结果来说,我觉得还是值得付出努力的。
After wiping the excess paint from thebrush I added brown chips over much, but not all, of the lighter tones appliedin the previous chipping steps. You can see in photos 35 and 36 that there area number of different coloured chips working together adding authenticity tothe finish. Adding chips to a complex camouflage like this can be tedious andtime consuming but the results are well worth the effort.  





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Photo 37-38 图片37-38
现在是时候给那些大规模掉漆的区域增加一些锈蚀效果了。我用珐琅漆油画颜料和天然土混合了锈色。这样调制是在保留珐琅性颜料色泽和附着性的同时,让它的干燥时间变的更快一点,加入天然土的目的是丰富颜色。在涂在模型上之前,别忘了用珐琅漆稀释剂进行稀释。
Now it was time to add some rust over theareas containing lots of chips. I mixed a few rust tones using enamels, oilpaints and pigments. Mixing oils with enamels will give you some of theblending capabilities of oils. The mix will also contain the opaque propertiesof the enamel while also drying a bit quicker. The pigments are for addedcolour. Enamel thinner was used to dilute the mix prior to placing it onto themodel.   





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10-01-43.jpg
Photo 39-43 图片39-43
你可以将我们调制出来的锈色涂在掉漆较多的地方,然后用珐琅漆溶剂把它晕开。当然,也可以稀释的多一点,为要呈现锈蚀的地方做个“局部渍洗”。
You can paint the rust tone onto the areaswith larger chips then blend it with enamel thinner. You can also thin the mixand apply the tone as a localized wash.





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Photo 44-45 图片44-45
注意!千万别所有掉漆的地方都上锈色。那就不自然了。
You do not need to apply the rust tone toall of the chips.



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10-01-48.jpg
10-01-49.jpg
Photo 46-49 图片46-49
46-49这四张图片展示了在这辆JS-3上掉漆和锈蚀搭配的效果。您可以看到,两者(掉漆和锈)的配合非常的微妙。因为这种还在服役的车辆往往不会积累大量的锈。
The next four photos show some moreexamples of blending rust tones over chips and scrapes on this JS-3. You cansee that this is a very subtle effect. Operating vehicles like this were notoften in the field long enough to accumulate large amounts of rust.




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Photo 50-51 图片50-51
再回到我们的这辆JUS-152上来。为暴露在外,掉漆较重的金属部件或接口处做深锈色渍洗。具体位置可参考图片。
IThick dark rust washes were also blendedover the large chipped areas containing lots of exposed metal.





10-01-52.jpg    10-01-53.jpg    10-01-54.jpg
10-01-55.jpg    10-01-56.jpg
Photo 52-56 图片52-56
接下来我们要用斑点法(译者注:还记得第五期的内容不?)来增加一些更加精细和细小的深锈色斑点。要执行这个步骤,首先要有一个改造过的硬毛笔刷(译者注:什么?不记得了!赶紧回顾一下第五期的内容吧!温故而知新哦)使用与上面一步相同的深锈色调。在纸上擦除多余的油漆,在一张干净的白纸上弹一下测试效果,一旦效果满意,再弹到模型上需要呈现锈斑的地方。
Now it was time to add some more very finechips of dark rust using the speckling technique. To perform this step I neededa modified stiff bristled brush. The same rust tones mixed for the previousstep were used. I removed the excess paint from the brush then tested theresult by flicking specks of paint onto a clean piece of paper. Once I amcontent with the outcome I carefully speckled fine amounts of rust over themodel.





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Photo 57-58 图片57-58
接着,在大面积掉漆的地方弹上锈斑。记得用遮盖带把不想沾上锈斑的地方盖住。如图所示,我利用遮盖带在这辆虎式的储物箱上弹上锈斑。
Again focus most of the rust specks ontoareas where the most chips are present. Use paper or tape to mask places whereyou want less speckles. Tape was used to mask areas around the damaged hatch ofthis Tiger I stowage bin.




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Photo 59-62 图片59-62
在斑点法做完之后,我在上车体和炮管的某些区域再用笔涂的方式添加一些锈迹。
After the speckling I decided to add moreruns of rust onto some of the areas of the superstructure and gun.





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10-01-65.jpg
Photo 63-65 图片63-65
在炮塔下方用深灰色做一些污渍垂纹。
Runs of dark grey were also blended toareas under the gun.   




通过我们呈现的这个JSU-152的例子。尽管耗时且乏味,但好好的按步骤做好掉漆对最终效果的帮助显而易见。通过旧化,掉漆以及结合后面要说的环境效果,您的模型将会呈现非常真实的效果。
Although time consuming and tedious theimportance of effectively carrying out the chipping steps is apparent on thisJSU-152. Evident through most of the weathering, chipping works in conjunctionwith the earth tones giving a final authentic result to your model.

LIST OF STEPS 步骤详解
下面是我在这辆JSU-152完成掉漆效果的步骤列表。同时,我还列出了JS-3的步骤。这些是我在做大部分模型的掉漆效果时采用的步骤示例。有时候根据战车在战场上服役的时间长短,掉漆的多少会相应发生改变。注意,为了获得更有说服力的成品,您通常需要在不同步骤之间来回切换,同样,这些步骤的顺序也不是教条的。(译者注:每个模型大师可能都有自己常用的步骤,各位模友也可以自己在实践中摸索出自己觉得最好的方法或步骤。
Below is a list of steps that I applied tocomplete the chipping process on this JSU-152. I have also listed the stepsapplied onto the JS-3. Again, these are a few examples of how I carry out thechipping steps on most of the models I complete. Sometimes the chipping will bemore or less intense depending on the subject and how long it’s been in thefield.  Please note that you will oftenneed to go back and forth between the different steps on order to obtain aresult that you feel is convincing. Also keep in mind that these steps do notnecessarily need to be applied in the same order.



10-01-66.jpg
JSU-152 (CONTAINING A CAMOUFLAGE) JSU-152(迷彩涂装)
1)    在金属部件笔涂灰色,呈现金属磨损效果。  Brushing grey tones over steelareas.


2)    用海绵掉漆法在迷彩上点绿色掉漆(译者注:和底色同样颜色的绿) Adding green chips over thecamouflage using a sponge.


3)    用面相笔修饰海绵掉漆区域,并在伪装上增加一些精细的绿色掉漆和划痕。 Adding more controlled greenchips and scratches over the camouflage with a fine paintbrush.


4)    海绵掉漆法在绿色底色区域点戳浅绿色掉漆色。 Applied lighter green chipsover areas of the green base coat using a sponge.


5)    笔涂浅绿色掉漆和划痕 Paint more light green chipsand scratches over the green using a brush.


6)    面相笔在迷彩色上添加部分浅绿色掉漆和刮擦痕迹。 Adding lighter shades of chipsand scrapes over the camouflage colors using a brush.  


7)    笔涂深棕色掉漆(译者注:通常在掉漆比较严重的地方。) Put on dark brown rust chipsusing a brush.


8)    在掉漆多的地方添加锈色沉积 Blended thinned amounts of rusttones over areas containing lots of chips.

9)    用斑点法添加细小锈斑 Speckling with fine amounts ofrust.





10-01-67.jpg
JS-3

1)    在金属部件上笔涂灰色。 Brushing grey tones over steelareas.


2)    海绵掉漆法点戳浅绿色掉漆(译者注:比底色浅的绿色Adding fine light green chipsusing a sponge.


3)    笔涂浅绿色掉漆修饰海绵掉漆区域,并添加一些细节和划痕等。Adding more controlled lightgreen chips and scratches using a brush.


4)    在掉漆多的区域添加锈色沉积 Blended thinned amounts of rusttones over areas containing lots of chips.


5)    用斑点法弹一些浅绿色斑点模拟自然磨损。 Speckling fine amounts of lightgreen.


6)    用斑点法添加细小的锈斑。 Speckling fine amounts of rust.
      

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 楼主| 发表于 2018-10-15 13:51:29 | 显示全部楼层

LARGE CHIPS USING A BRUSH 笔涂大面积掉漆

本帖最后由 facewest 于 2018-10-15 14:17 编辑

LARGE CHIPS USING A BRUSH 笔涂大面积掉漆


在广大模友做大面积掉漆效果的时候,虽然发胶掉漆被使用的越来越广泛,仍然不能否认的是,用笔涂的方式往往更加简单快捷。
Although the hairspray technique has becomemore common for creating heavy large chipping effects on scale models it canstill sometimes be simpler and quicker to use a paint brush for obtaining thesetypes of effects.



在这个例子中,我会参考实车图片,用和前一节同样的技法在LVT侧面制作大面积掉漆效果。老生常谈,一个高质量的笔刷和水漆的稀释度是至关重要的两个要素。当然,想要达到效果,还需要配合一些技法。一起来看看吧!
In this example we will make some largeareas of chips that I observed in reference photos on the sides of this LVTusing the same techniques covered earlier. Again, the paint brush that youchoose along with properly thinning the acrylic paints is very important. Asalways a few techniques will be needed to obtain the final result.  




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10-02-02.jpg
Photo 1-2 图片1-2
首先,用00号的温莎牛顿7系列笔刷把棕色掉漆色在LVT两侧涂出基本形状。
To start, the basic shapes of the largebrown chips were painted onto the sides of the model using a 00 Winsor &Newton series 7 paint brush.





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Photo 3-4 图片3-4
接下来,我在大片的深棕掉漆色上随机点涂深灰色,可以看到整个色调开始往锈色发展了。然后再用与底色相同的颜色勾勒出掉漆的边缘(译者注:增加对比度。)
Next I randomly painted a dark grey colouronto the large brown chips in order to start getting some variations in therust. I also outlined the edges of the chips using a lighter tone of the basecoat.





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Photo 5-6 图片5-6
然后我用Humbol珐琅漆和天然土混合并稀释出锈色沉积效果涂料,把他们涂在掉漆的位置。然后用珐琅漆稀释剂把他们稀释开,与之前棕色掉漆色和深灰色两种颜色一同作用,呈现出消光的锈色沉积效果。
Another rust tone mixed from Humbrolenamels and pigments was applied over the chipped areas and blended usingthinner.  This step blended and workedwith the brown and dark grey acrylics while adding further matt rust tones.





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Photo 7-9 图片7-9
用之前调制的锈色沉积在车辆的各部分添加随机的重锈效果。
The same enamel mix was used to add randomheavy runs of rust over different parts of the vehicle.



好了,正如我在这个例子中向您展示的那样。有时,我们用笔涂的方式来呈现大面积掉漆反而是非常简单和快捷的。接着,您可以继续用笔涂的方式,沿着这几个步骤多做几轮以获得最佳效果。接下来我将呈现另一个在IV坦克的裙甲上进行重度掉漆的例子。我还将使用传统的笔涂方式覆盖底色呈现掉漆,但会采用一些新的步骤呈现重度划痕效果。
As I just showed you in this example sometimesapplying large chips by brush can be quicker and simpler then when usinghairspray. Again we utilized a number of steps using various rust tones inorder to get the final result. Next we will do another example of heavychipping onto the side skirts of a panzer IV. Again we will be usingtraditional brush techniques over the base coat in conjunction with a few newsteps for obtaining heavy scratches.  
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 楼主| 发表于 2018-10-15 13:51:54 | 显示全部楼层

HEAVY CHIPPING (SCHüRZEN) 重度掉漆(IV号裙甲)

本帖最后由 facewest 于 2018-10-15 14:22 编辑

HEAVY CHIPPING (SCHüRZEN) 重度掉漆(IV号裙甲)


第三个示例中,我给大家展示另外一种更加激进的掉漆例子。
In this third case I wanted to show another¸more extreme example of chipping.




类似IV号坦克这种裙甲之类暴露在最外面的部件在实际中会有非常大的磨损,尤其是在长时间在野外的情况下更是如此。我们还会采用和前面相似的技法,但也会加入一些新技术来制作不同类型的划痕和掉漆效果。
Exposed details such as these Panzer IVschürzen were subject to a lot of wear especially if the vehicle had been inthe field for a substantial amount of time. Some of the methods used for thisinstance will be more of a review from earlier with a few new techniques usedin order to help create some different types of scratches and chips.




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Photo 1-2 图片1-2
首先我用油画颜料来画一些大一点的划痕(译者注:这里用的是ABT 502 油画颜料 155号 浅沙色),用遮盖带辅助,确保画的线是直的。
The first thing that I decided to do waspaint some large scratches using thinned oil paints. Tamiya tape was employedto aid in obtaining straight lines.





10-03-03.jpg    10-03-04.jpg    10-03-05.jpg    10-03-06.jpg
Photo 3-6 图片3-6
接下来参考实车图片,在模型上添加细小的划痕。这一步我用了改良过的平头笔刷(具体改造方法可见图片)来做。用AV漆混合出浅沙色,把多余的漆擦掉以后在纸上先试试效果,如果满意了再在模型上操作,如图所示拉出细小划痕。
Next I needed to make all of the finescratches evident in my reference photo. I accomplished this task using a modifiedflat jagged brush. A light sand tone was mixed using Vallejo acrylics. Wipe theexcess paint from the brush onto a piece of paper and first apply the scratchesonto a test piece to see if you are happy with the result prior to performingthe technique on your model.





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Photo 7-8 图片7-8
再用细笔刷和AV水漆修饰一下这些浅沙色划痕。如前面所说,不要忘了稀释。接下来,我在一些浅沙色划痕上添加一些深棕掉漆色,丰富一下色彩。
Light sand chips again mixed from Vallejoacrylics were applied using a fine brush. Do not forget to thin the paint usingwater as shown earlier. Next I applied a dark brown acrylic tone over a numberof the lighter sand chips and scratches.





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Photo 9-11 图片9-11
接下来我用珐琅漆和斑点技法添加一些更微弱的掉漆斑点。一旦你觉得做的有点过了,没关系,可以在干燥前用笔刷蘸珐琅漆稀释剂擦除或修改。
More faint chips were added using thespeckling technique. Remove some of the specs before the paint dries using abrush and enamel thinner if you feel that the effect is too much.  





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Photo 12-14
等之前的漆干燥一段时间之后,我们用锈色的渍洗液在有大量掉漆的位置做锈色沉积效果。在进入下一步旧化之前,我们用斑点法再弹一点锈色斑点在裙甲上。
After the specs had dried for a while somerust washes were blended over the areas containing lots of chips. The last stepneeded prior to weathering was to speckle on some more fine bits of rust.




这其实是掉漆的一个比较极端的例子。之所以要把它单独拎出来呈现给大家,是因为这个和我通常做掉漆的步骤不太一样。 另外我们再来看看下一个例子,就是在防磁表面上做掉漆。
This is an extreme example of chipping. I wantedto include this case because it quickly and clearly displays the differentsteps that I often use during the chipping process. Let’s look at anotherexample of chipping this time over a zimmerit surface.  
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 楼主| 发表于 2018-10-15 13:52:48 | 显示全部楼层

CHIPPING ZIMMERIT 防磁表面的掉漆

本帖最后由 facewest 于 2018-10-15 14:28 编辑

CHIPPING ZIMMERIT 防磁表面的掉漆


第四个例子我想来谈谈怎么在防磁表面做掉漆效果。
The forth example that I want to cover is applyingchipping effects over a Zimmerit surface.


10-04-00.jpg
虽然防磁的材质和纹理可能略有不同,但操作手法其实是一致的。
Although the material and texture isdifferent you will see that the techniques are pretty much the same.  




10-04-01.jpg
Photo 1 图片1
在图1中您可以看到几个真实的防磁装甲的样子。左边的这两个黄褐色的是粘在车体这面的,注意部分粘上了氧化红色(译者注:可以推论在涂防磁的时候,车体可能是就是这种氧化红色。),所以我们做掉漆的时候也可以用这种颜色。最左边这个表面是深黄色,可能是由于时间久远的原因褪色了造成的。
In photo one are a few pieces of actualzimmerit. The pieces toward your left show the tan colour of the paste. Notethe maroon chips that are most likely bits of the red oxide paint that it wasapplied over. The pieces on the left display the dark yellow coat. Please notethat this tone may be faded as a result of age.




10-04-02.jpg
Photo 2 图片2
防磁是涂在底漆上的。所以,我们用水性漆调制底漆的红色,先在防磁上手涂一些大面积的掉漆。
Zimmerit was applied over the primer.Therefore I first painted all of the large chips in the zimmerit with a primerred tone mixed from acrylics.




10-04-03.jpg    10-04-04.jpg    10-04-05.jpg
Photo 3-5 图片3-5
用珐琅漆和天然土调出一个浅一点的黄褐色,然后刷在底漆红上。然后用松节油(译者注:或者珐琅漆溶剂)擦掉多余的涂料。看上呈现出防磁从底漆上剥落并留下一点点残留的视觉效果出来。
A light tan tone was mixed from enamels andpigments and brushed over the primer red areas. Turpentine was used to blendand remove some of the tan paint. Blending the tan and reveling some of theprimer looks like remnants of the zimmerit left over from where it had beenchipped away.  





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Photo 6-7 图片6-7
接着再用水漆调出浅棕黄色调,用笔涂的方式在防磁表面呈现更多的掉漆。
More chips were given to the zimmeritsurfaces using another light tan tone this time mixed from acrylics.




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Photo 8-10 图片8-10
在接下去的旧化步骤前,仍然用斑点法在防磁表面弹一些沙色斑点做掉漆和轻微磨损效果。
The last step prior to weathering was toadd some faint chips and flaws over the sand tone using speckling.




本章节前面两个示例中的IV号坦克有着比较重的掉漆效果。至于我们在掉漆流程中究竟采用哪种技法或技术,更多的取决于你想做成什么样子。在这一期中,我已经呈现了在掉漆过程中笔涂和其他技法配合使用的例子。当然,海绵掉漆,斑点法,锈色沉积也都在制作掉漆效果中扮演着重要的角色。在应用这些方法时,一定要多多注意和思考。(译者注:做之前一定要做一些规划,然后再动手。
The Panzer IV used in the last two examplesof this chapter contains rather heavy chipping. The extent to which you carryout the different techniques of the chipping depend upon the subject. I havedemonstrated in this chapter that chipping with a brush is like most otherfinishing methods in that it should be applied in conjunction with othertechniques. The sponge method, speckling and light rust tones also play animportant role. Both thought and care should be given when applying each ofthese methods.




如我之前提到的,还有一种技法也是掉漆流程中重要的一步。就是在较大的掉漆位置用石墨(译者注:例如铅笔)增添漂亮的金属光泽。当然,我建议这在旧化流程的最后一步做,因为接下来的旧化工作很可能把它覆盖得无影无踪。用石墨和铅笔增强掉漆效果的方法我们会在本期后面以及本书的最后再进一步讨论。
As I mentioned earlier, there is one moretechnique that is part of the chipping process. Blending graphite over thelarger chips will add a nice metallic sheen. This is one of the final stepsthat I apply because some of the upcoming wreathing steps would simply nullifythe effect. Using graphite to enhance chipping will be discussed later in thischapter and in more detail at the end of the book.
本期完! 敬请期待下期“发胶掉漆”!
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发表于 2018-10-15 14:45:17 | 显示全部楼层
感谢楼主无私的奉献精神。
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发表于 2018-10-15 17:30:36 | 显示全部楼层
感谢分享!楼主辛苦了!
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发表于 2018-10-15 21:22:22 | 显示全部楼层
感谢楼主,辛苦辛苦
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 楼主| 发表于 2018-10-15 22:52:51 | 显示全部楼层
tanQ 发表于 2018-10-15 21:22
感谢楼主,辛苦辛苦

谢谢大家的支持!
来自苹果客户端来自苹果客户端
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发表于 2018-10-15 23:25:02 | 显示全部楼层
支持!
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发表于 2018-10-16 07:02:22 | 显示全部楼层
谢谢楼主,楼主辛苦了
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