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[原创资料翻译] [连载] 亚当的模型指导书 下册 第十三期 浮尘、雨痕和泥浆

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发表于 2018-11-14 10:55:22 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
本帖最后由 facewest 于 2018-11-15 09:41 编辑

前面的几期可能已经给大家的模型制作打下了良好的基础。接下来两期(书中是一章,但内容实在太多,我分为两期呈现)我觉得也是旧化中最重要的部分了,就是环境效果的呈现。说的直白点就是“上土”,作为渣做专业户的我,上土是很写意的,基本随便乱戳,效果完全靠天收。看完这一章才发现原来里面学问这么大,操作居然是如此的复杂和讲究。好吧,大师你赢了! 但想要获得真正逼真的效果,恐怕这些基本功不得不去磨练。分享给各位力求突破的模友们!!
这期占五个楼层吧。内容很多,大家慢慢消化!

附上前几期传送门:
第一期:色彩区分 http://www.moxdao.com/thread-56135-1-1.html
第二期:底色和迷彩喷涂  http://www.moxdao.com/thread-56231-1-1.html
第三期:色调调节  http://www.moxdao.com/thread-56473-1-1.html
第四期:滤镜: http://www.moxdao.com/thread-57160-1-1.html
第五期: 图案和标识徽章  http://www.moxdao.com/thread-57797-1-1.html
第六期:发胶掉漆制作冬季涂装  http://www.moxdao.com/thread-57939-1-1.html
第八期:褪色和添加阴影 http://www.moxdao.com/thread-58663-1-1.html
第九期: 常规掉漆  http://www.moxdao.com/thread-58789-1-1.html
第十期: 发胶掉漆  http://www.moxdao.com/thread-58971-1-1.html
第十一期: 外部装备涂装 http://www.moxdao.com/thread-59092-1-1.html
第十二期: 钢制表面涂装和锈 http://www.moxdao.com/thread-59741-1-1.html

声明:所有图书和图片的版权均归原作者和原出版社所有,任何人不得用于商业用途。翻译稿暂时只在模型岛放出,欢迎转载,但请提前联系本人。非常感谢!


13 ADDING EARTH TONES ANDEFFECTS环境效果


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到本章为止,我们已经介绍了通过喷涂和笔涂,以及添加清漆,滤镜,渍洗和添加阴影以增强细节的多种方法。
Up to this chapter we have covered methods forboth airbrushing and brush painting finishes along with adding varnishes,filters, washes and shadows to enhance details.


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不仅如此,我们还一起探讨了制作真实的掉漆效果,甚至是涂装外部零件的方法。理解和掌握前面章节介绍的这些步骤能够帮助你在进入接下来这个章节前打下完美的基础。虽然一度颇受争议,环境效果和旧化效果在比例模型上的应用现在已经被大家广泛的接受了。在模型上应用这些效果让模友们产生了无穷的创造力。如果旧化和本书中介绍的其他技法搭配得当,能够让您的模型呈现非常逼真的效果,足以让你一遍又一遍的欣赏它。有时候我选择做某一个模型可能纯粹是因为它的“旧化潜力”,比如本书总各个章节大家看到的那辆LVT。事实上,我对LVT战车本身并不感冒,只是觉得有机会让我尝试一次以前从未做过的那种厚厚的,潮湿的,新鲜泥浆效果而已。
Methods for creating authentic chippingeffects and approaches to panting exterior components have also been presented.Having a good understanding on how to effectively finish each of these stepswhen painting a model will allow you to obtain a great base for applying theweathering effects covered in this next chapter.  Although once controversial, the applicationof earth tones and weathering effects to scale models has become more acceptedover the past decade. Applying these effects gives the modeller another levelof creativity. If done properly the weathering effects used with the othertechniques described throughout this book can give you a very realistic modelthat you will enjoy looking at on your shelf time and time again. Sometimes Iwill choose a subject simply for its weathering potential such as the case ofthe LVT seen throughout the pages of this book. In fact, I really have nointerest in the LVT at all. I just knew that this subject would give me anopportunity to apply some thick, wet, runny mud in a way that I have not hadthe opportunity to do on other replicas.




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有许多种技法和产品被模友们广泛用于制做旧化效果。当然,并非所有这些都是每个模型必须的。有一些模友使用的方法,我自己也都还没试过。好吧,言归正传,在本章中你看到的所有旧化方法都是多层应用的,顺便补充一下,如我之前所言,它们和其他技法配合使用才能达到最佳效果。
There are now many techniques and productsavailable for adding weathering effects that are being used by modellers. Ofcourse not all of them are necessary for finishing every model. There are somemethods that I have yet to try and they all take practice. You will see thatall of the weathering methods covered in the following descriptions are appliedin layers, and, as I said earlier, work best in conjunction with otherfinishing techniques.


在本章中,我们将讨论以下内容:
- 应用雨痕和浮尘的示例
- 飞溅泥浆
- 履带和行走装置的旧化
- 厚重灰尘和厚泥土
During this chapter we are going to discussthe following:
- Examples for Applying Rain marks and Dust
- Mud Spatters
- Weathering Tracks and Running Gear
- Heavy Dust and Thick Layers of Mud



我强烈建议您首先参考一些实车的照片,来了解不同旧化效果的实际外观是什么样的。Google图片搜索引擎是个好东西!(译者注:墙内只有用baidu)。另外探访一下你们本地的建筑工地也是另一种选择,尽管有些工程车辆的操作员(或者工地的管理员)如果看到你在拍照会有些不爽。有关参考实车,还要提醒大家,比如您打算旧化一辆谢尔曼坦克,别只局限于参考M4系列的照片,大部分战车上能看到的那些效果都会对你有帮助。好了,一切就绪后我们就要继续前进了,先从应用雨痕和浮尘的例子开始吧。这将成为后续旧化步骤的基础。
I strongly recommend first referencingphotos of weathered vehicles to familiarize yourself with how differentweathering effects look. Google Image search is great tool for finding suchpictures. Visiting local construction sites is another option although I havefound that the equipment operators often get uneasy when people startphotographing them. If you are going to weather a Sherman tank for example, donot only limit yourself to photos of M4s. The effects seen on most AFVs willhelp to give you ideas. With all of this in mind let’s move forward withexamples for applying rain marks and dust. These effects will work as the basefor all of the subsequent weathering steps needed to complete a model.





APPLYING DUST AND RAINMARKS 灰尘和雨痕


浮尘和雨痕效果通常是第一步也是最重要的一个旧化步骤。
Applying dust and rain marks is usually thefirst and most important weathering step.



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随机的浮尘和雨痕能够成为后续效果的基础,例如厚泥浆甚至是排气管的污渍。雨痕主要呈现的是被雨水冲刷下来的微弱的垂直的灰尘色线条,如图中JS-3的上部表面所示,浮尘和雨痕效果可能相当的微妙。尽管有时候效果看上去很微弱,但正如本书开头所说,这些哑光效果与光泽底色能够形成非常鲜明的对比,的确,雨痕和浮尘效果还可以帮助你在各个细节之间创建对比,比如这辆象式的车体侧部和大面积的顶部面板之间
Random layers of dust and rain marks willserve as both a base and guide for a lot of the subsequent effects such asthicker layers of mud grease and even exhaust stains.  Rain marks represent faint vertical lines ofdust that have been washed downward by rainfall. This is why the effect isreferred to as “Rain marks”.  Dust andrain marks can be rather subtle as seen on the upper surfaces of this JS-3.Although sometimes faint, these matt effects contrast nicely with the model’ssatin basecoat as discussed at the beginning of this book. Rain marks and dusteffects can also help you to create contrast between details such as on thehull sides and large upper plates of this Geschutzwagen Tiger II.



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在这辆T-34上,我们看到了另一个使用灰尘色调来帮助创建对比度的例子。您可以看到由于浮尘和油渍的应用对于颜色产生影响后,变速箱盖是如何与车体上部其他部分区别开的。这几个效果都在共同强调着一处细节,协助“打破”后车体的整体色彩分布,让模型更加的生动。在这一小节中,我们将用四个例子讨论这类可能比较微妙但却非常重要的效果。与渍洗和滤镜一样,您会发现在光泽面和哑光面应用雨痕和浮尘效果所得到的结果会有所不同。同样,我还将展示在CM喷涂后的表面上应用雨痕和浮尘的示例。在这些不同的情况中,您会注意到潮湿效果在增强雨痕和浮尘效果方面也起着非常重要的作用。现在让我们看一个最为常见的例子—在光泽表面做雨痕和浮尘效果。
On this T-34 we see another example ofusing dust tones to help create contrast. You can see how the transmissioncover sticks out from the rest of the upper hull as a result of the dust alongwith other effects such as grease and colour modulation. These effects are allworking together to emphasize this fragile detail while also breaking up therear hull making the replica more lively. During this segment I am going todiscuss four examples for applying these sometimes faint but important effects.Like with washes and filters you will see that the results you obtain with rainmarks and dust will differ between satin and matt surfaces. I will also show anexample of applying rain marks and dust over colour modulation. Throughoutthese different cases you will notice that wet effects also play an importantrole in enhancing rain marks and dust effects. Let’s now look at a simpleexample over a more common satin surface.





光滑缎面上的浮尘和雨痕 APPLYING DUST AND RAINMARKS OVER A SATIN SURFACE

我们第一个例子就在涂装车辆时最常见的光泽表面上展开吧。为了便于演示,在第一个例子中我使用一块塑料片来进行。我觉得这是展示整体效果最简单直接的方法了。
Our first example for applying rain marksand dust will be over a satin surface that we commonly weather when painting avehicle.
For ease of demonstration I decided to usea piece of sheet plastic for this first example. I think this is the simplestway to demonstrate how I use this method in layers to accomplish the overalleffect.


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Photo 1-2 图片1-2
制作雨痕的第一步:用浅灰褐色(参考图片中的颜色)田宫水漆随机的在塑料板上喷涂。
The first step that I perform when creatingrain marks is to apply a light random grey-tan coat over the subject usingTamiya acrylics.   




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Photo 3-4 图片3-4
接下来,您需要准备几支细笔刷,任何材质的细头毛笔都可以。第二步需要调制一个合适的颜色,我在一个调色板中的两个格子内装满水,然后调出另一种浅灰褐色,用笔头一点点的加入油漆,直到获得比之前喷涂的颜色更深一点的颜色就好了。(译者注:这里亚当用的是XF57: buff色,XF59消光沙黄,XF63 德灰)。这个灰尘色大致的漆和水的比例在1:10左右。
To continue this step you are going to needa few fine brushes. Any fine pointed low-end brush will work for thistechnique. The second step also involves acrylic colors. I took a palette andfilled two of the pools with water. I mixed a another light grey-tan colourusing a brush to add fine amounts of the paint at a time until obtaininganother tone a bit darker than the one airbrushed before.  You will want your dust colour to containabout one part paint and ten parts water.




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Photo 5-9 图片5-9
如果你想制作的雨痕是很细很窄的那种,我建议先把刷子上的漆在餐巾纸上擦一下。然后如图所示,用笔在塑料板表面按垂直的方向轻轻的涂抹刚才调好的涂料,然后等其干燥,再重复上述过程。图片8中展示了在涂了三层之后的状态。注意,可以看到微弱的雨痕是如何一点点的变得越来越明显的。图片9展示了涂完第四层之后的表面。
If the surface that you are applying therainmarks to is small or narrow, as in this case, I would recommend firstwiping some of the mix from your brush onto a dinner napkin. Start applying thewatery mix over the surface using vertical strokes as shown, let it dry, andthen repeat the process. Photo eight shows the part after the third pass ofapplying the watery mix. Note how faint rainmarks are starting build upbecoming more evident. Photo nine shows that surface after four layers of themix.



注意事项:
这个步骤有几个非常重要的事项大家需要知道:你会看到,水混合后的漆首先会在光泽表面形成尘土痕迹。在实际的车辆的光泽表面上也都会有同样的效果,此外,本书中大家还能看到E-75d炮塔和船体上部有一些淡淡的尘土斑点状痕迹,经过三道四层的涂抹之后你能够得到一个消光的表面,从而让创建垂纹变得更加简单。
TRY TO KEEP IN MIND THE FOLLOWING:
It is very important to remember a few things.You will see that the watery mix of dust will start to bead up at first onsatin surfaces.  This is perfectly fine.This same effect happens on all satin surfaces of actual vehicles. Faint spotsof the matt dust tone are evident on the upper sides of the E-75 turret andhull seen in these books. After three to four passes you will start to build upa matt surface making it easier to create fine vertical streaks.




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Photo 10-11 图片10-11
我继续创建更多的垂纹效果。图片10大概包括了八到九层前面步骤的操作。请注意我现在是如何将笔刷的垂直操作更多的集中在之前喷涂的位置上,让雨痕变的更加的明显。图片11中,可以看到我更多的聚焦在塑料板下部的位置,因为靠近地面的区域总是容易聚集大量的尘土。
Moving on I continued applying morevertical streaks. Photo ten contains around eight or nine passes. Note how I amnow focusing the vertical strokes more on the dust pattern airbrushed before.As your rainmarks become more evident start using the random airbrushed coatsof dust as your guide. In photo 11 I also began focusing more on the lowerareas supposedly closer to the ground when applying the final passes.   




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Photo 12 图片12
图片12展示了完成雨痕制作的塑料板的样子。我个人觉得非常满意。这种方法可以让我慢慢的一点点的来呈现它,直到获得我满意的结果未知。田宫的XF系列水漆的消光效果非常高,可以形成漂亮的雨水和浮尘痕迹,与光泽漆面形成鲜明对比,让模型更加的真实。
Photo 12 shows the square with therainmarks completed. I enjoy applying rainmarks in this manner. This methodallows me to build them up slowly until getting a result which I am happy with.The XF series of Tamiya paints are very matt allowing for nice flat layers ofrainmarks and dust that contrast nicely with the satin basecoat making themodel more authentic looking.  





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Photo 13-14 图片13-14
最后,您其实还可以通过刷一些天然土来修饰一些你不满意的雨痕区域,后续还可以用珐琅漆稀释剂垂直涂抹来混合和固定天然土。
You can brush on dry pigments to touch upareas in the rain marks that you are not happy with. After you can apply morevertical strokes using enamel thinner to blend and fix the pigments if youlike.   




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Photo 15-18 图片15-18
参考图片中的实车,这上面的光泽区域用在模型上通常称之为“潮湿效果”,可以真正的增强雨痕的表现力。所以我用稀释后的珐琅性透明光泽漆做了更多的随机线条和形状,模拟潮湿未干的效果。当然您还可以在市场上买到很多不同品牌的专门的潮湿效果液来进行。接下来,我用斑点技术弹一些更加稀释的珐琅透明漆,巧妙地把这些“斑点”和垂纹效果结合起来。在操作上我用纸遮盖住了塑料板的上半部分,是为了把效果更多的放在更低的区域(靠近地面的区域)。最后,再用细笔刷轻轻的刷一点天然土在光泽区域来柔和效果。
Glossy areas, often referred to as “WetEffects” can really enhance rainmarks. I created more random lines and shapesusing a thinned enamel gloss. You can also buy pre-mixed wet effects from anumber of different brands.  Next Isubtly combined the wet vertical lines and shapes with more thinned gloss enamel,this time using the speckling technique. I masked the upper part of the square using paper. In this case I wantedto place more of the specs on the lower area. Again, dry pigments were lightlybrushed on to blend some of the glossy areas.




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Photo 19-20 图片19-20
在完成后的成品上,您可以看到哑光的雨痕在光泽表面上形成了非常真实的浮尘效果。同时,潮湿区域又“打破”了哑光色调,形成了鲜明的对比。这个例子恰好说明了多种效果协同要比单一的效果好太多了。图片20中这辆KV-2X Walker是仅仅使用我们这段演示中灰尘和雨痕效果的例子(译者注:没有应用其他环境效果)。大家再次注意潮湿效果在增添真实性上扮演着至关重要的角色。当然,我相信大家能用AV或者Life colour水漆同样做出漂亮的雨痕效果。我个人一直在用田宫涂料,因为我比较熟悉这个品牌的消光特性。后面的例子我还会给大家呈现用珐琅漆和水粉颜料制作雨痕的例子。
On the completed part you can see that the mattrainmarks create a very genuine coat of dust over a satin surface. The wetareas also add to the authentically breaking up the matt dust tones. This is agreat example of how some effects work much better together then when justapplied alone. The KV-2X walker is an example of a model that was weatheredusing only the dust and rainmark techniques demonstrated in this segment. Againnote how the wet effects play a vital role in adding both authentically andcharacter to this menacing looking model. I am sure that you can use otherthinned acrylics such as Vallejo and Life Colour for creating rainmarks. I havealways used Tamiya paints for these effects because I am familiar with the mattproperties of this brand. I will create more rainmarks in some upcomingexamples using enamels and gouache paints.


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 楼主| 发表于 2018-11-14 10:57:47 | 显示全部楼层

消光表面制作雨痕和浮尘效果 APPLYING DUST AND RAINMARKS OVER A MATT SURFACE

本帖最后由 facewest 于 2018-11-14 13:01 编辑

消光表面制作雨痕和浮尘效果
APPLYING DUST AND RAINMARKS OVER A MATT SURFACE


随着现在模型套件的主题选择越来越丰富,哪些从未生产出来的图纸车和变型车越来越受到大家的欢迎。
这些图纸车为模友们提供了一个机会来展示自己的创意。涂装图纸车的一些流行选择是用消光漆面,如工厂阶段底漆红或者未上漆的原钢色等。在消光表面的雨痕和浮尘效果往往有所不同。虽然这个部分介绍的操作技术基本都是对上一节的回顾,但我觉得还是有必要呈现一些东西的。
With the abundant choice of differentsubjects now available as plastic kits, theoretical AFVs that never got pastthe design stages, referred to as paper Panzers, and other exotic prototypeshave become more popular.
These themes give the modeller anopportunity to be more creative with the finish. Some of the popular choices forpainting paper panzers are matt finishes like factory applied primer red andunpainted steel. Rainmarks and dust effects tend to act a bit differently whenapplied onto a matt surface. Although most of the techniques in this part willbe a review of what we’ve just covered there are a few things that I want todemonstrate.




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Photo 1-2 图片1-2
和前面的例子一样,我先随机的喷涂一层灰尘色,重点放在零件的下部区域。由于是消光表面,您可以更加容易的创建垂直条纹的雨痕。在图片2中,您看到的只是刷了两层垂直雨痕后的效果。如果油漆稀释比例不够,很快您就会让雨痕看上去非常的不自然,因为消光表面会快速的吸收颜料并扩散。所以,我建议你在一个消光零件上先做做实验,测试一下油漆的稀释比例合适。
As in the previous example I started by airbrushinga random coat of dust focusing on the lower areas of the part. As a result ofthe matt surface you will see that it is much easier to create subtle verticalstreaks of rainmarks. In photo two you are seeing the effects after only thesecond layer of vertical passes. If your mix has too much paint you willquickly obtain opaque unnatural looking rainmarks. This is because the pigmentsin the wash will adhere quickly to the rough microscopic texture of the mattsurface. Therefore, I would recommend trying your mix on a matt test piece tomake sure that your water-paint ratio is to your liking before performing thisprocess on the model.   




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Photo 3-4 图片3-4
天然土也很容易附着在消光表面上,因此用起来也 要保守一些,一次只涂一点点。笔刷只要蘸一点点天然土到消光表面,他们就能够保留下来了。然后在用珐琅漆稀释剂,垂直擦拭用来混合天然土。
Pigments also adhere much better to mattsurfaces so be very conservative applying them only in small amounts at a time.Once the pigments are brushed onto a matt surface they are pretty much there tostay. You will be able to blend them a little with enamel thinner.



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Photo 5-7 图片5-7
这次我用Humbrol珐琅漆调制了一个湿泥土色调(用一些泥土色的天然土,加入一些珐琅漆溶剂。),从而创造一些雨痕和浮尘效果的变化。在刚才调的这个湿泥土色中混入了一些珐琅光泽清漆,然后随机的涂在模型上,并用珐琅漆溶剂把他们刷开。本书后面的章节还会详细讨论湿泥土色调的使用。
This time I made a damp earth tone using aHumbrol enamel mixed with some dirt coloured pigments creating variations inthe rainmarks and dust effects. Some enamel gloss was also added to the blend.I applied the enamel mix in random areas and blended it with thinner. We willtalk more about using damp and wet earth tones in the upcoming sections.  



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Photo 8-9 图片8-9
同雨痕效果一样,在消光表面上应用潮湿效果,如果稀释的不到位,那么看上去也会显得很突兀。因为潮湿效果的外观的光泽特性让它和其余地方的消光表面产生了非常明显的对比。因此,你也可以再小心的上一层干的天然土来巧妙的中和这种效果。
As with rainmarks, wet effects will also bemuch more evident on a matt surface if you do not first thin the gloss. This isbecause the glossy appearance of this effect will contrast more with a mattfacade than with a satin one like in the previous example. Once again you cancarefully brush on dry pigments to subtly blend these effects to your liking.



雨痕和天然土在效果表面的操作上扮演着不同的角色。如果油漆稀释得当,您会发现在消光表面应用雨痕实际上更加容易一些。需要再一次强调的是,天然土的用量一定不能多,天然土一旦涂在消光表面了,那它几乎不可能被清理干净。一旦不小心做过了,想要消除这种过强的灰尘效果,有一种方法就是在这些地方小心的再薄喷微量的底色遮盖一下(中和一下)。
Rainmarks and pigment applications actdifferently on matt surfaces. If your paint to water ratio is right you willfind rainmark application to actually be easier and rather enjoyable over amatt surface. Again, I need to stress that you apply the pigments in lightamounts at a time. Once pigments are placed onto a matt surface it is almostimposible to remove or even blend them. One method for reducing areas where youfeel the dust application to be too strong is to carefully airbrush some faintamounts of the basecoat back over these parts.
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 楼主| 发表于 2018-11-14 10:58:02 | 显示全部楼层

CM表面上的雨痕和浮尘效果制作 APPLYING DUST AND RAINMARKS OVER COLOUR MODULATION

本帖最后由 facewest 于 2018-11-14 14:33 编辑

CM表面上的雨痕和浮尘效果制作
APPLYING DUST AND RAINMARKSOVER COLOUR MODULATION


这一小节我会给大家呈现一下怎么在CM技法喷涂的模型上制作水痕和尘土效果。
In this segment I will demonstrate the applicationof dust tones and rainmarks onto a model containing color modulation.



虽然操作手法和之前介绍的没什么区别,但在我们之前营造出来的渐变色阴影的各个梯度上需要用不同的尘土色调来诠释。
Although applying these techniques are thesame as explained previously, different dust tones will be needed over thevarious shades and gradients.  


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在这个例子中,您可以看到我用了两种不同颜色的尘土色进行喷涂。凹陷的阴影区域用深色调,其他露在外面的表面用浅色调。然后混合三种不同色调的雨痕(尽管通常两种就可以了,但为了表现色调调节的生动性,我还是选择用了三种)。同样,在阴影和高光区域我用了四种色调的天然土进行修饰,展现了灰尘层的色调变化。这个例子中,我们继续用那辆掉漆效果处理后的LVT进行演示。
In this case you will see that I started byairbrushing two different shades of dust. A dark tone was used for the recessedshaded areas and a lighter one for the other surfaces. Three different shadesof rainmarks were then mixed although two will usually work fine depending onhow dramatic the colour modulation is. Four tones of pigments were used overthe light and dark areas while also adding variations in the layers of dust. Inthis example we will be continuing with the LVT as it was left afterapplication of the chipping effects discussed earlier.



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Photo 1-2 图片1-2
首先,我用田宫水漆混合一个深色的尘土色调随机的在阴影区域喷涂。这个阴影区域主要聚焦在车辆的凹陷区域,这些区域包括挡泥板下方,车体下部以及车体上部的炮塔周围部分。
I started by airbrushing a rather darkrandom tone of dust mixed from Tamiya paints. I focused this dark shade intoall of the recessed areas where shadows would be. These places included underthe fenders, onto the lower parts of the hull and around the upper hull wherethe turret would sit.



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Photo 3-4 图片3-4
接下来,在车体上部随机的喷涂浅一点的灰尘色调。车侧哪些可能有大量泥浆附着的区域,轻喷一些垂直的条纹。同时,我在模型的下车体露在外面的表面也随机喷了一些轻微的灰尘色调。
Next a lighter dust tone was also appliedin arbitrary amounts over the upper hull. Light streaks were airbrushed ontothe sides where large amounts of mud were going to be dripping down. I alsoapplied some lighter random coats of dust to the outer parts of the lower hullunder the model.




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Photo 5-7 图片5-7
由于履带的来回滚动,挡泥板下方的水平面上往往存在厚厚的泥土沉积。我先用遮盖带遮盖车辆的侧面,虽然在这些表面上会有一层相当厚的泥土,但我在这里只想在上面呈现一些随意的,轻轻的浮尘效果。
Thick deposits of mud would be present onthe horizontal plane below the fenders as a result of the returning track. Tapewas used to mask the sides of the vehicle. Although a rather heavy layer ofearth would be present over these surfaces I wanted to keep the dust on theupper sides lighter and more random.




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Photo 8 图片 8
为了制作雨痕,我混合了三种泥土色调(深,中,浅),每一种都是漆和水 1:10的比例稀释的(丙烯漆)。
For the rain marks I mixed three earthtones each containing a mix of about one part acrylic paint and ten partswater.




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Photo 9 图片9
在这一步中,我用消光的灰尘色喷涂一些浮尘效果,给制作雨痕“搭个台”。接下来就要用到笔刷来制作雨痕了。虽然我调了三个色调,但这里中间色调是主力。浅灰尘色主要用在这片区域中雨痕最突出的地方用来强调的。您可以看到,我在较暗的凹陷区域红使用了中间色调,丰富这些阴影区域的色彩。在这一步中大家一定要小心一点,因为在这些较暗的区域,我们用的浅灰色看起来几乎是白色。(译者注:所以用浅灰尘色时一定要控制用量。
I used the random airbrushed layers of mattdust as my guide for the rainmarks during this step. Although I had a darktone, the medium shade was the predominant colour used. The lighter colour wasapplied where the rainmarks were the heaviest for added tones in theseareas.  You can see that the medium tonewas used in the darker recessed areas to give more tones to these shady areas.I would urge caution as the light grey colour can appear almost white in thesedarker parts.




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Photo 10-12 图片10-12
用打圈的方式在水平表面应用雨痕和水渍。最好是拿笔轻轻的敲和戳,这样更加自然,直到漆面干燥。这个步骤中,您可以使用吹风机来加速干燥时间。图片11和12中展示了做完浮尘和雨痕效果的LVT的样子。正如我之前所说,用这种方式做环境效果的优点是:您可以巧妙的将浮尘和雨痕效果统一起来,结果也很自然。来看看雨痕是如何帮助前面一步我们喷涂的微弱浮尘效果提供更加逼真的效果吧。
The watery mix of rainmarks was applied tothe horizontal surfaces with a larger round brush using a circular motion. Itis best to keep tapping the diluted mix until it is fairly dry. You can use ahairdryer to speed up the drying process during this step.  Photos 11 and 12 show the LVT with the dusttones and rainmarks completed. As I said earlier, the advantage of adding earthtones in this manner is that you can subtly build up the dust and rainmarks toa point where you feel they look convincing. See how the rainmarks will help togive more of a realistic muddled appearance to the faint layers of dustairbrushed on in the previous step.   




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Photo 13-15 图片13-15
我又混合调制了四种色调的天然土来巧妙的混合雨痕效果。详情可参考图片14-15
I mixed four pigment tones to add moreearth shades while also subtly blending the rainmarks as seen when comparingphotos 14 and 15.




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Photo 16 图片16
在水平表面也用天然土混合珐琅漆溶剂,进一步增加浮尘的色调。
Pigments were also applied to thehorizontal surfaces and blended with enamel thinner to add further tones to thedust.   




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Photo 17 图片17
在CM涂装的表面上应用浮尘和雨痕所需要的操作手法和技术与之前几个小节介绍的并没有什么不同。根据您在进行色调调节的时候所营造的丰富的色彩变化,所以通常在喷涂灰尘色,做雨痕和上天然土时需要增加更多的色调。好了,现在这个模型已经有了一个很好的基础,可以在下面讨论和应用更重的旧化和潮湿效果了,这些我们稍后再谈。
The techniques needed for applying dust andrainmarks to a surface with colour modulation are no different than thosediscussed earlier. More tones in the airbrushed layers of dust, rainmarks andpigments are often necessary depending how dramatic your colour modulation is.Now this model has a good base for the heavier weathering and wet effects thatwill be discussed and applied later.   
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 楼主| 发表于 2018-11-14 10:58:21 | 显示全部楼层

用水粉颜料制作浮尘和雨痕效果 APPLYING DUST TONES AND RAIN MARKS USING GOUACHE...

本帖最后由 facewest 于 2018-11-14 13:32 编辑

用水粉颜料制作浮尘和雨痕效果
APPLYING DUST TONES AND RAIN MARKS USING GOUACHE PAINTS

水粉颜料是不透明的水溶性涂料。和水彩一样,都含有粘合剂,但水粉颜料有更多的粉彩,所以更厚,更加消光。干燥后呈现的颜色要比你湿涂上去时更加的浅一些。所以,在调色的时候需要进行一定的练习。
Gouache paints are an opaque water-solublepaint. Like water colors they have a bonding agent but contain more pigmentsmaking them thicker, very matt and more opaque. They tend to dry to a lightertone then what you will observe when they are still wet so some practice isneeded when mixing them.



水粉颜料的特性使其非常适合模型的旧化。它干燥后是消光的,有助于我们来表现泥土和铁锈的颜色。水粉颜料最大的优势就是你可以先干涂,然后再与水混合。水粉是水溶性的,所以,后续还可以用珐琅漆进行进一步修饰,不会破坏前面制作的效果。当然,如同其他媒介一样,使用水粉颜料也需要一些练习和实践。同样,水粉颜料和其他涂装技术综合使用才能带来最佳效果。因此,本章的例子都是已经完成过前面那些旧化步骤的模型。
Gouache paints have certain propertiesmaking them ideal for weathering. They dry very matt making them good forcreating earth and rust colors. The biggest advantage is that you can applygouache paints and blend them further with water after they have dried as Iwill demonstrate. As Gouache is water-soluble you can apply subsequentfinishing effects over them using enamel paints.  Like all other mediums some practice isneeded to effectively use gouache paints. Like most other methods gouachepaints will give you the best results when used with other finishingtechniques. Therefore this chapter will contain some finishing steps discussedpreviously.




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Photo 1-5 图片1-5
首先,我用丙烯水漆在车体下部随机喷涂泥土色调,然后在上部和顶部随机喷涂。这一层随机喷涂的泥土色涂层将成为接下来制作的灰尘色调和雨痕的基础。一如既往,在各种细节的周围喷涂薄薄的浮尘色,比如舱口,用来创建对比。在喷涂的时候,可以用一张纸对细节部位做一定的遮盖保证这些物体或工具的清洁,并和其他部分区分开来。
I started by airbrushing an earth toneusing acrylic paints onto the lower hull and randomly over the upper parts andsuper structure. This random coat will act as a base for the upcoming dusttones and rain marks. As always I airbrushed thin amounts of dust aroundvarious details such as the hatches creating contrast. A piece of paper wasused to mask details such as the tools keeping these objects cleandistinguishing them from the rest of the superstructure.




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Photo 6-7 图片6-7
驱动轮,从动轮,路轮,惰轮也都随机喷上灰尘色。喷的时候注意,一定要薄喷,以确保遮盖涂层呈现透明效果,这样不至于影响之前掉漆效果的显示。
The drive sprockets, return rollers, roadwheels and idler wheels also received a random coat of dust. Make sure thiscoat is transparent keeping the chipping effects evident as shown.




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Photo 8-11 图片8-11
当我们在使用水粉颜料时,最好再旁边备一块调色板,放入少量的水。因为在过程中你会发现要对水粉进行不同程度的稀释。比如制作雨痕,就需要用水稀释一些。如图所示,将多余的涂料在纸上擦拭后,用细笔刷在模型的侧面上涂上垂直细条纹,聚焦在车侧面板的上部和下部,注意条纹的长度要随机,这样真实性才有保证。
When working with gouache paints it is bestto place a small amount onto an aluminum palette with some water. You will findthat you need to thin them differently depending on the application. In thecase of rainmarks you should dilute some of the paint using the tap water asshown, wipe the excess away onto a piece of paper, and then apply vertical finestreaks onto the side of the model using a small brush. Focus more of therandom length streaks toward the lower areas of the superstructure as shown.



在运用到模型上之前,最好再一块废塑料上线进行练习来熟悉水粉的特性。
Practice on a piece of painted scrapplastic to become familiar with the properties of Gouache prior to applyingthem to your model. They are another type of paint containing their owncharacteristics that you should first familiarize yourself with.




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Photo 12-14
然后用水蘸湿笔刷,轻轻的垂直的刷开这些水粉颜料(译者注:就如同我们用珐琅漆做褪色和垂纹效果时一样)。如果你对雨痕的外观不是很满意,可以添加更多的细纹然后刷开混合它们。
Next blend the fine lines using the samebrush dampened with only water. If you are not happy with the appearance of therainmarks you can add some more fine lines and blend them.


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Photo 15-16 图片15-16
您可以看到,水粉颜料是在模型表面添加细微雨痕的有效方法之一。与丙烯漆相比,水粉的特性也更加的“宽容”,你甚至在他们干燥之后依然可以用水来调整。(译者注:我没有用过水粉,这里的意思可能是说水粉颜料干燥后仍然可以用水进行溶解。丙烯漆一旦干燥了就不溶于水了。
You can see that gouache can be aneffective means of adding subtle rainmarks onto the surface of a replica.Gouache is also more forgiving than acrylic paints for this application in thatyou can soften and continue to work them using water after they have dried.




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Photo 17-20 图片17-20
用水粉颜料来制作浮尘效果是非常用以的。 用水稀释之后,我在挡泥板上刷了一层,给它一段时间干燥,用水擦去一些不必要的地方,如图20所示。来看一下这个泥土效果的外观,让类似加强筋这样的部位保持一定程度的洁净有助于这样的细节与尘土飞扬的挡泥板其余部分之间形成对比。
Adding layers of dust with gouache paintsis easy. After thinning the paint with water I brushed a layer onto thefenders. Once it had some time to dry I softened the paint using water andremoved much of it from the inner parts as shown in photo 20. Observe theresulting muddled appearance of the earth tone. Keeping the stiffeners on theouter edges of the fenders clean will help to create contrast between thesedetails and the rest of the dusty fender.




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Photo 21-22 图片21-22
在前部这个弧形的挡泥板上,我用一个细笔刷打湿之后向下把水粉刷开,形成雨痕。
On the front rounded fender I blended thegouache paints downward using a small damp brush creating rainmarks.




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Photo 23-24 图片23-24
用同样的方法在模型其他细节周围制作浮尘效果。我先用水粉涂再零件角落处,然后用笔刷蘸水一点点的戳着把他们晕开。请注意这个步骤是如何与先前喷涂的丙烯材质的灰尘色配合呈现,从而创造逼真的浮尘效果的。
Dust was also blended in the same manneraround other details on the model. I did this by by first brushing on thegouache dust coloured paints into the corners then blending them outward usingtap water. Note how this step works in conjunction with the acrylic dust tonesairbrushed earlier creating an realistic random layer of dust.




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Photo 25-27 图片25-27
我还会将泥浆涂在车轮的外径周围。
I coat of mud was also placed around theouter diameter of the wheels and blended.



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Photo 28 图片 28
接下来,我们的工作开始往车体下部移动,来添加更多的土。有很多方法可以制作厚厚的泥浆,后面我还会给大家演示。在这个例子中,我用了水粉颜料,石膏和细沙的混合物制造了大量的干土,然后用斑点法把这种混合物弹在车体的下部和后部。
Moving toward the lower part of the hull,heavier amounts of earth were applied. There are a few ways to create thick mudas I will also demonstrate later on. In this example I created thick amounts ofdry earth using a mixture of gauche paints, plaster and sifted sand. I appliedthis mixture onto the lower and rear parts of the hull using speckling.



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Photo 29-31 图片29-31
飞溅的泥浆通常都残留在车体的下部。用一片纸遮挡放置泥点溅到车体上部,同样,利用这片纸的遮挡,可以吧泥点控制在车体后方的履带上。同时也弹一些干泥浆在行走装置上。
Mud splashes usually stay more toward thelower parts of the hull. Pieces of paper were used to keep any specks of paintfrom getting on the upper parts. Pieces of paper where also used to keep thespeckling confined toward the rear of the hull over the tracks. The dry mudmixture was also speckled over the running gear.  




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Photo 32 图片32
如果要在车体做泥土垂纹效果,那么我就会在车体弹上更多水粉混合的泥土,然后用水把他们按垂直的方向往下刷。
I applied more if the gouache mud mix ontothe lower hull and blended it downward again using water to create runs.  




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Photo 33-34 图片33-34
在弹完泥点之后我觉得车体后部履带上方的厚厚的泥层看起来并不自然。我就用丙烯水漆喷了一些灰尘色在周围。然后使用水粉混合制作了更多的雨痕。有时候你可能需要经常在模型的某些部分之间来回的切换(译者注:包括技法,颜色等),以获得你觉得最自然的外观效果。
After the speckling I felt that the thicklayers of mud did not look natural on the rear of the hull above the tracks. Iairbrushed some more dust using acrylic paints. More rainmarks were blendedusing gouache. You will often need to go back and forth between techniques oncertain parts of a model in order to get a result that you feel is natural inappearance.  



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Photo 35-39
应用浮尘效果的最后 一步是在水粉制作的雨痕上涂集中不同颜色的天然土,用来巧妙的混合一些我认为外观不自然的区域。(译者注:目的其实就是用这些不同颜色的天然土进行一个遮挡并创造一些对比。)在车体后部面板上用稀释剂把天然土晕开或刷开来呈现更加严重的旧化效果。注意,稀释天然土的珐琅稀释剂并不会对之前的水分颜料产生影响。
One of the final steps in applying the dustwas to bush on a few different coloured dry pigments over some of the gouacherainmarks subtly blending any areas that I felt to be unnatural in appearance.Thinner was used on the rear plate to further blend the pigments in theseheavily weathered areas. Note that the enamel thinner will not influence thewater-based gouache paints applied earlier.  




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Photo 40 图片40
您还可以用深色的天然土在一些面板看不见的下方创建阴影,比如这个炮塔的上护板。
You can use darker pigments to createshadows underneath details such as this mantlet cover.   




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Photo 41-44 图片41-44
如在T-55工程车辆的行走装置上看到的那样,深色的,潮湿的厚重泥土色调会在模型旧化中起到丰富颜色,增加纹理的作用。我使用Humbrol珐琅,光泽清漆和一些土色天然土混合出来一个深色调的泥土色涂料。从行走装置开始,我用笔刷把这种深土混合物涂在轮子上,然后用松节油调和和固定。
Darker, damper earth tones will add bothcolour and texture to a weathered replica as seen on the running gear of thisT-55 engineering vehicle. I mixed a dark earth tone using Humbrol enamels,gloss varnish and some earth coloured pigments for added texture. Starting withthe running gear I applied the dark earth mix onto the wheels using a brush andthen blended the tone using turpentine.  




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Photo 45-47 图片45-47
潮湿泥土效果也 有助于在细节之间创造更多对比。
Damp earth effects will also help to createfurther contrast between details.




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Photo 48 图片48
在一些会聚集大量泥浆的地方(译者注:比如车前挡泥板),用斑点法弹上一些潮湿泥土色调。
The damp earth tone was also speckled oversome of the areas where large amounts of mud would build up.   




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Photo 49-51 图片49-51
最后一步是对车体和行走装置添加一些潮湿效果,以获得更多质感。正如我在之前的部分中所说的那样,添加有光泽的潮湿区域是“打破”雨痕的绝佳方式,让浮尘效果更加真实。可以再弹一些潮点在模型上,进一步“打破”浮尘色调,同时巧妙的统一较大的潮湿区域。
The final step was to apply some weteffects to the hull and running gear for yet more texture. As I have said inearlier segments, adding glossy wet areas is a great and easy way to break uprainmarks making the coats of dust more authentic. Subtle thinned amounts ofgloss were also speckled over the model to further break up the dust toneswhile subtly unifying the larger damp areas.  




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Photo 52 图片52
田宫清漆也是添加光泽效果的绝佳选择,例如这个虎王的车轮凹槽中的潮湿区域就是用田宫清漆呈现的。在这个例子中,我在车轮的潮湿泥土效果的右边简单的涂了一层清漆就好了。
水粉颜料是在模型上制作浮尘和雨痕的另一种选择。这种涂料更加的灵活,因为他们可以用蘸湿的笔刷进行重新加工。而且水粉是完全不透明的,因此在使用这种介质制作雨痕浅,需要尽可能的把他们稀释,薄涂为上!
Tamiya clear is also a great medium foradding glossy effects such as the wet areas in the grooves of this Tiger IIwheel. In this case I simply painted the clear right over the damp eartheffects.
Gouache is another option for adding dusttones and rainmarks onto a model. These paints are more flexible because theycan be reworked with a wet paintbrush. Gouache is very opaque so you will needto thin them prior to using this medium for applying rainmarks.



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浮尘和雨痕通常是第一个也是最重要的一个旧化步骤。本章介绍的技术将成为完成一辆装甲模型甚至是其他大部分种类模型旧化步骤和效果的基础。在下一章中我将继续给大家展示更多的飞溅泥浆的例子。应用好飞溅泥浆,也在获得良好的旧化表现上发挥着重要的作用。
Appling dust tones and rainmarks are usually thefirst and most important weathering step. You will see the techniques coveredin this chapter will now work as both a base and guide for the upcomingweathering steps and effects needed to realistically finish an armour model andmost other types of replicas. In the next segment we will continue with moreexamples for applying mud spatters. Applying different mud spatters also playsan important role in obtaining an good weathered finish.
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 楼主| 发表于 2018-11-14 10:58:55 | 显示全部楼层

飞溅泥浆 EARTH SPATTERS

本帖最后由 facewest 于 2018-11-14 13:39 编辑

飞溅泥浆
EARTHSPATTERS


虽然在之前的例子里我用水粉颜料制作了飞溅泥浆的效果,但我还是想用田宫漆来更详细的谈谈这个重要的技法。
Although I previously demonstrated the effectivenessof earth spatters using gouache paints I would also like to talk about thisimportant technique in more detail using TAMIYA paints.



我的每一个装甲模型都用到了这个简短的小步骤。您可以在旧化的不同阶段使用飞溅泥浆效果。这个技法能够给您模型上的浮尘色调和雨痕添加真实的外观。飞溅泥浆可以给有大量泥土聚集的区域带来真实的效果,使用斑点法可以最好的应用这项技术。我们一起来看几个例子吧。
I use the steps shown in this short sectionon every armour model that I finish. You can use earth spatters throughoutdifferent stages of the weathering process. This technique will help add to theauthentic appearance to your dust tones and rainmarks. Earth spatters will alsogive a very natural look to areas containing heavy amounts of mud. Applying mudspatters is accomplished best with the speckling technique. Let’s look at a fewexamples.   


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Photo 1-6 图片1-6
本小节介绍的几个例子中使用的飞溅泥浆是由四种不同成分的材料组成的混合物。通常我会准备一些备用的小瓶或者小罐子用来保存这些调制好的混合物,以备以后的模型使用,这样就不用每做一个模型都调制一次了。先用田宫漆混合一个浅灰尘色调,然后添加一些石膏,细沙等混合成我想要的泥浆。通常比例是:漆4,石膏2,沙子1。有时,如果调的太稠,还需要加入少量的水来稀释一下让它软化。调制结果可能根据你使用的材料和调配比例而有所不同。(译者注:并没有标准答案,具体还是要看您自己的喜好和操作习惯了。
The earth spatter mix that we will use inthese examples is a concoction of four different ingredients. What I did inthis case was to use a spare jar to keep the mixture stored for use on futuremodels.  After mixing a light dust tonewith Tamiya paints I added some Plaster of Paris and sifted sand then mixedeverything together. The mix that I usually make contains about four parts paint,two parts plaster and 1 part sifted sand. A little water is sometimes needed tosoften the mixture.  The results that youare looking for will differ depending on the proportions that you add of eachingredient.




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Photo 7-11 图片7-11
从瓶子里取一点刚才调制好的混合物放在调色板上,添加更多的水用硬笔刷把他们搅拌一下,让混合物均匀稀释。然后用搅拌的这支硬笔刷,使用斑点法,小心地将这个混合泥浆弹到模型的不同部分。在这个步骤中,我用一片纸来挡住不需要泥浆的部分,避免弹的过程中造成“误伤”。图片10展示了轻弹飞溅泥浆后的车体侧面。在这个混合物干燥后,您还可以使用干净的刷子小心的扫除多余的泥点从而获得如图11所示的那样微妙的效果。
Take a bit of the mix and place it onto apalette.  Thin the mix by adding somemore water with a stiff bristled brush. With the same stiff bristled brush usethe speckling technique to very carefully apply the earth coloured mix ontodifferent parts of the model. Paper can be used to mask details during thisstep.  Photo 10 shows the side of thehull after lightly applying the earth spatters. After the mix dries you cantake a dry clean brush and carefully sweep away the excess amounts of the mixobtaining a subtle random effect faintly visible in photo 11.  


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Photo 12-14 图片12-14
在图片12-14中,您可以看到还可以借助白纸的遮罩来应用飞溅泥浆效果。这样就可以把它们固定在某个特定的区域。在这个例子中,我继续让浮尘色调和雨痕来配合飞溅泥浆的应用,如同前面一章提到的那样。
In photos 12 through 14 you can see anotherexample of applying the earth spatters with the aid of paper masks in order tokeep the effects refined to specific areas. In this case I continued to let thedust tones and rainmarks guide the application of this earth effect asrecommended previously in the section on rainmarks.



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Photo 15-17 图片15-17
这是另一个用纸张遮盖来制作飞溅泥浆的例子。这次我们用这张遮盖后把泥浆弹在 GeschuzwagenTiger Fur 17cm自走炮的前方车体下侧。
Here is one more example of using paper tomask the application of earth spatters onto the lower hull sides of thisGeschuzwagen Tiger Fur 17cm.


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Photo 18-22 图片
对于行走装置,我总是喜欢涂上比较厚重的泥土层。我通常现在轮子的外部区域用笔刷涂抹一层泥土(译者注:可以是刚才制作泥浆的混合物,也可以用天然土再调一个稠一点的泥土)。接着,用斑点法在车轮上弹上更多的泥浆。放置干燥一小时,然后用硬毛刷小心的去除一些泥土(注意!不是全部)。对一些比较大的硬块,可以选择用牙签把他们弄下来。
I always apply heavier layers onto therunning gear. I usually start by lightly applying the earth mix using a brushto place it onto the outer areas of the wheel. Next I apply more of the mixusing speckling. Let the mix dry for an hour and then carefully remove some(but not all) of the effect using a stiff brush. You can also use a toothpickto eliminate some of the larger more rigid chunks.



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Photo 23 图片23
图片23展示了模型完成后车轮的旧化效果。可以看到,如同我们前面说到的所有技法一样,飞溅泥浆也需要和其他旧化效果结合使用,例如较暗的泥土色调,潮湿效果和油渍等。
Photo 23 shows the weathered wheel on thecompleted model. As with all techniques, earth spatters should be used inconjunction with other weathering effects such as darker earth tones, wet areasand grease stains.



用田宫漆、石膏、细沙制作的泥浆能够为您的浮尘色调和雨痕添加一个相当微妙的遮罩层,让模型的表面更加的逼真。下一期您将看到这个混合物在制作履带和应用厚重泥土色调时同样发挥着巨大的作用。
Earth spatters using Tamiya paints, plaster andsifted sand will add another rather subtle layer to your dust tones andrainmarks making your finish more lifelike. You will see this mix used throughout the next chapter as a step infinishing tacks and applying heavy earth tones.  

本期完!!敬请期待下期 履带和行走装置的涂装旧化
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发表于 2018-11-14 11:22:04 | 显示全部楼层
太感谢楼主了,辛苦了!有条件的可以去youtube搜亚当的视频,有个kv1 系列,基本和这本书的步骤一样,只不过是视频一步步演示,更加明了
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发表于 2018-11-14 13:54:16 | 显示全部楼层
楼主辛苦,继续学习
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发表于 2018-11-14 15:04:57 | 显示全部楼层
盼星星盼月亮终于盼到了
来自苹果客户端来自苹果客户端
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发表于 2018-11-14 19:21:53 | 显示全部楼层
进来学习
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发表于 2018-11-14 19:57:42 | 显示全部楼层
辛苦楼主         
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