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[原创资料翻译] [连载] 亚当的模型指导书 下册 第十四期 履带的旧化和厚重泥土

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发表于 2018-11-20 10:28:05 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
本帖最后由 facewest 于 2018-11-20 10:30 编辑

不知不觉,从8月开始翻译并给大家呈现这本《亚当的模型指导书》已经过去了三个月,生生从夏天熬到了深秋。我们的连载也要接近尾声了,预告一下,本期结束,这本书的绝大部分内容都已经翻译完成呈现给大家了,感谢大家这几个月的支持和鼓励,让我有动力能够用我自己的一点点精力和能力给予论坛,给模友一些回馈。
下一期就是我们的完结篇了。考虑到版权的保护和尽量避免一些投机取巧的朋友拿着我的翻译件和原书用作他用,所以最后一期我会摘取剩余的部分章节呈现给大家(还剩余5个小章节,篇幅都不算多,我可能选择其中2-3个呈现出来),请各位小伙伴给予理解,缺少的这些内容完全不影响各位对于本书的阅读和学习。


本期将单独把履带和厚重泥土效果拿出来分享给大家,尤其是履带介绍的非常的详细,囊括了市面上所有类型的履带。可以说是履带教程的“决定版”了。大家一起来看看吧。这一期内容也很多,占六个楼层!

附上前几期传送门:
第一期:色彩区分 http://www.moxdao.com/thread-56135-1-1.html
第二期:底色和迷彩喷涂  http://www.moxdao.com/thread-56231-1-1.html
第三期:色调调节  http://www.moxdao.com/thread-56473-1-1.html
第四期:滤镜: http://www.moxdao.com/thread-57160-1-1.html
第五期: 图案和标识徽章  http://www.moxdao.com/thread-57797-1-1.html
第六期:发胶掉漆制作冬季涂装  http://www.moxdao.com/thread-57939-1-1.html
第八期:褪色和添加阴影 http://www.moxdao.com/thread-58663-1-1.html
第九期: 常规掉漆  http://www.moxdao.com/thread-58789-1-1.html
第十期: 发胶掉漆  http://www.moxdao.com/thread-58971-1-1.html
第十一期: 外部装备涂装 http://www.moxdao.com/thread-59092-1-1.html
第十二期: 钢制表面涂装和锈 http://www.moxdao.com/thread-59741-1-1.html

第十三期: 浮尘、雨痕和泥浆 http://www.moxdao.com/thread-60200-1-1.html


声明:所有图书和图片的版权均归原作者和原出版社所有,任何人不得用于商业用途。翻译稿暂时只在模型岛放出,欢迎转载,但请提前联系本人。非常感谢!



WEATHERING TRACKS 履带旧化


直到现在,与模型的其他部分相比,履带和行走装置的涂装和旧化仍然常常被大家忽略。
Until recently the tracks and running gearare often neglected in comparison to the rest of the model in regards topainting and weathering.


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正如我在这套《模型指导书》中的前言中所说,履带和行走装置通常覆盖大约模型外表三分之一,而且履带也是是战车如此有趣的重要细节之一。因此,使用与模型其余部分相同的技术对他们进行涂装是至关重要的。
As I said in the first of these two bookstracks and running gear often cover roughly one third of the model’s exterior.Tracks are also one of the details that make AFVs so interesting. Therefore itis vital that they are finished in layers using the same techniques as on therest of the model.

13-03-00-03.jpg

这个部分将介绍《模型指导书 上册》中我们一起组装的几种履带类型,而且还包括橡胶履带的示例。下面四个例子中讨论的技术可以用于大多数各种类型的履带,下面就让我们从通常模型套件内带的塑料拼接履带开始吧。
This part will cover the types of trackassembled in the first book. An example using the flexible kit provided rubberband type will also be included. The techniques discussed in the four followingexamples can be used on most other types of track sets available. Let’s getstarted with the injection molded plastic individual linked types oftenincluded in the plastic kits.

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塑料拼接/半拼接履带旧化
WEATHERING GLUEABLE PLASTICTRACKS


本章中我继续使用《上册》中组装的JSU-152的履带进行演示。
In this segment I will be continuing withthe sections of JSU-152 track assembled during the first book.


涂装这条履带的一些操作技法和我们在上一期“用水粉颜料制作浮尘和雨痕”中展示的类似。在操作上,切记左边和右边的履带分开操作(译者注:即先涂装完一边的在涂装另外一侧)。如果不小心弄混了,等到做好后想装回去的时候可能会发现轨道上的齿孔可能对不齐。
These tracks will be painted with some ofthe same techniques in a similar order as demonstrated on the JSU-152 in thechapter entitled, “Applying dust tones and rain marks using gouache paints”.Remember to keep the runs of links for the right and left sides of the modelseparate from each other. If you mix them up the sags on the tracks over thereturn rollers may not align properly.   



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Photo 1 图片1
在这个例子中,我首先用水性哑光棕色涂料(译者注:图中可以看到是田宫XF-52 土地色)对履带进行三层喷涂。在喷涂的时候,我会把履带粘在一张稍微大一点的纸上(可用双面胶),以防在喷涂的时候被喷笔的气流吹走。每次喷涂的时候,把这张纸转个方向,保证履带的每个角落和细节都被喷上。
For this example I will start byairbrushing the track with three good coats using an acrylic matt brown paint.Tape the tracks onto a piece of paper to keep the sections from blowing awaywhile you are airbrushing them. Rotate the paper between each coat in order toproperly get the paint into all of the corners of these complex details.   



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Photo 2-3 图片2-3
在履带的外部(接触地面的那一面)用笔刷上干泥土色调的水分颜料混合物。接下来用手指把履带边缘的湿漆擦除,保证这些区域的平滑,以便后面增加金属效果。
A dry earth tone of gouache was brushedover the outer parts of the track. I used my finger to rub away the wet paintfrom the outer edges keeping these areas smooth for the metallic effects thatwould be added later.



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Photo 4-6 图片4-6
然后把履带翻过来,同样用干泥色水分涂料混合物给履带内部大大小小来一边涂刷,然后用湿笔刷晕开。这里外部边缘部分也用相同方法涂上泥土色。
The dry earth tone of gouache paint wasthen applied to the inner parts of each section and blended with a wet brush. Ialso applied the earth tone to the outer edges then blended it in the samemanner



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Photo 7-8 图片7-8
接着,等水粉颜料干了之后,我在上面添加一些灰色,并用斑点法在履带内外部都弹上一些这种较暗的色调。这种色调能丰富履带的颜色表现。通过图片8中你能非常明显的看出前后的差异来。下面一条未做这一步的履带只有一个单调的土色,而上面那条的颜色则更加丰富一些。
I added some grey to the dry earth gouacheand applied this darker tone to the outer and inner sections of the track usingthe speckling technique. This darker tone will add more earth shades to thetracks. This is evident in photo eight on the upper run when compared to thelength below it with a single dry earth tone.



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Photo 9-15 图片9-15
下面我会用Humbrol珐琅漆的棕色,混合天然土和珐琅透明光油,调制出一个湿泥土色调,在加入珐琅稀释剂。把这种湿泥土运用在一部分履带制动齿的内部(译者注:中间部分),以“打破”干泥土单调的色调。图中还可以看到,我在履带的外侧和内侧(译者注:这里区别于正反)也都用加入了这种湿泥土色,最后还可以用斑点法再弹一轮。(译者注:目的就是为了丰富履带的颜色
I made a mix using Humbrol brown withpigments and enamel gloss to represent a damp mud tone. After applying this mixI blended it using enamel thinner. I also added some damp earth to some of theindividual links on the inner sides of the treads to break up the dry earthtones. More of the damp earth was speckled onto both the outer and inner partsof the runs as shown.  


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Photo 16 图片16
田宫清漆非常适合给履带添加一些湿润的有光泽的外观。可以开瓶直接笔涂(不用稀释)。这个步骤之后,大家看到这条履带已经包含了干泥土,湿泥土,以及潮湿效果这些有趣的外观了。
Tamiya clear straight from the bottle worksgreat for adding glossy wet looking eras over effects such as earth tones.After this step the tracks had an interesting appearance containing dry, dampand wet areas.   


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Photo 17-18 图片17-18
我们的模型履带所使用的类型决定了我们是否要在最后给防滑齿外援创造一些抛光的金属效果。对于现在这种塑料拼接履带,最好用手指在履带的这些外表面上擦一层石墨,营造金属质感。
The techniques needed for creating thepolished steel effects on the outer edges of the cleats will depend on thetypes of tracks that you are using. On plastic types it is best to rub graphiteover these outer surfaces using your finger.  


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13-03-01-20.jpg    13-03-01-21.jpg

Photo 19-21 图片19-21
而要制作这种由路轮和从动轮引起的履带内部中间抛光效果,首先用铅笔在履带内部中间部分画出轮廓,然后用一张纸巾来回的擦就可以完美的呈现这种效果啦!
The polished effects on the inner parts ofthe track caused by the road wheels and return rollers were first marked with apencil then subtly blended using a piece of paper towel.   


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Photo 22-23 图片22-23
现在是时候把履带拼接到一起了。我用一把笔刀从履带的内部除去上面的油漆以保证塑料的粘合性。去除油漆也能让履带在安装的时候更容易卡到一起。然后就是拼接履带(半拼接履带)的常规操作了,从前开始做起,先把履带绕过惰轮,这样有助于我们很好的定位下部履带和路轮的位置。
Now it was time to assemble the finishedruns of track. I removed the paint from the inner parts of the links using ahobby knife. Removing the paint allowed for open areas of plastic in which tofirmly glue the runs together.  Slicingaway the paint also made it easier to interlock the runs during assembly.Gluing the front run first, which wrapped around the idler, allowed me toproperly locate that lower run under the road wheels.



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Photo 24-26 图片24-26
在每个车轮下面加一点强力胶,这样他们就可以准确的固定在履带上。粘合之后需要在车顶施加一些压力四到五分钟,让胶水干燥,这是一定要确保所有车轮都落在履带上,不可以有缝隙。之后您可以根据自己喜好安装并粘合履带的其他部分。我建议把驱动轮先拆下,以便在组装履带的上部和后部较小部分的时候保证位置准确。
Drops of super glue were applied onto thebottom of each road wheel in order to properly fasten them to the track. Youwill need to apply some pressure to the tops of the wheels for four to fiveminutes in order to let the glue dry ensuring that all of the wheels arerealistically sitting on the track. After, you can fit and glue the remainingruns of track in the way that you feel comfortable. I recommend that you loosenthe drive sprocket helping to insure its proper location when assebling theupper and rear smaller sections of track.


和车体一样,履带也需要分层做旧,以确保这些重要细节的真实性。如我所示,履带最好和车体分开进行涂装和旧化,以便有效的涂抹每层涂料和应用其他效果。塑料拼接履带(半拼接履带)是最难组装,并安装到模型上的一种履带,因为他们粘好后就不可动了。接下来,我们来涂装一个传统的可动塑料履带(译者注:这里不是大家理解的可活动的拼接履带,就是最普通的橡胶履带)。尽管今天我们可以使用更多更准确的替代品,但有些装甲模型爱好者仍然偏爱这种履带。
Like the hull, tracks should also be weatheredin layers ensuring an authentic finish to these important details. As I haveshown, it is best to paint plastic tracks in sections separate from the modelin order to effectively apply each coat of paint and other effects. Plastictrack such as the ones in this example are the most difficult to assemble,finish and attach to a model because they are not flexible or workable. Next wewill finish a set of the classic flexible plastic style tracks. Despite themany more accurate alternatives available to us today these tracks aresometimes still preferred by AFV modellers.

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 楼主| 发表于 2018-11-20 10:30:42 | 显示全部楼层

橡胶履带的旧化 WEATHERING RUBBER BAND TYPE TRACKS

本帖最后由 facewest 于 2018-11-20 10:50 编辑

橡胶履带的旧化
WEATHERING RUBBER BAND TYPETRACKS


虽然是老套件中的常规零件,被大家称之为“橡皮筋”的橡胶履带直到现在仍然是装甲模型爱好者们的一个不错的选择。
Although a more common item found in olderkits, flexible plastic tracks, referred to by modellers as “Rubber Band” typetracks, can still be a good option when building an armour model.



如今新的套件中包含的橡胶履带质量其实并不差,和老套件中那些细节和精度相当有限的老货相比其实还是有着很大的不同的。
The ones included in recent kit releasesare actually not too bad. This was rather different with the rubber band tracksfound in some of the older kits as they were often rather limited in bothdetail and accuracy.


使用这些新版的更精细的橡胶履带有一个优点,那就是它们非常易于组装和装配到模型上,很少或者根本不用洗件。我在这辆谢尔曼上使用的是AFV Club出的T-49履带,虽然有点厚,但细节丝毫不差!
There are a few advantages to using some ofthe newer better detailed rubber band tracks. They are quick and easy toassemble with sometimes little or no cleaning required. The AFV-club T-49tracks that I used on this Sherman, although a bit thick, contained sufficientdetail.



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Photo 1 图片1
橡胶履带很容易上色。先将两端连接在一起之后,我用丙烯涂料混合了一个消光的土地色进行上色。水补土其实都可以不用。
Rubber band tracks are rather easy to paint.After attaching the two ends of each run together I applied a matt earth basecoat mixed from acrylic paints. No priming was necessary.



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Photo 2-4 图片2-4
这个例子中,我想用丙烯涂料在履带上最大化的呈现暗钢色调,干涂在履带可能存在磨损的所有内外部区域。包括:履带内侧路轮和惰轮摩擦的地方,履带外侧和地面接触的地方等。
On this example I decided to max a darksteel colour using acrylic paints and dry-brushed it onto all of the inner andouter areas where worn steel would be present.



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Photo 5-6 图片5-6
我用田宫漆和石膏混合调制了厚土色泥浆涂料。用灰尘色天然土增加一些土地色调和质地,加入水稀释和软化混合物。接下来把它们刷在履带上。
I mixed a thick earth coloured slurry fromTamiya paints and plaster. I applied dust coloured pigments for added tone andtexture. I added water to slightly to soften the mix. Next I applied it ontothe track using an old brush.



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Photo 7-10 图片7-10
当泥土还是湿的时候,我用手指在履带外部边缘来回擦拭一下,确保后面这些区域做钢铁效果时是光滑的。然后在这些区域擦上石墨,与棕色金属色一起作用,形成钢铁磨损的外观。
I used my finger to wipe the mix from theouter edges of the cleats while it was still wet insuring that these areaswould be smooth for the worn steel effects. Graphite was then rubbed over theseareas to work in conjunction with the brown metallic colour creating theappearance of worn steel.



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Photo 11-12 图片11-12
把履带安装到模型上并把侧裙也装好之后,我用珐琅漆,油画颜料,天然土和珐琅光油调制了一个深色的湿泥土色调。先用笔刷涂在车前我们可以看到的地方,然后再用斑点法弹一些上去。完工!
After locating the tracks onto the modeland assembling the armoured side plates I mixed a darker damp earth tone fromenamels, oils, pigments and an enamel gloss. I applied this mix to the visiblefront and rear areas of the track first by brush then with speckling.



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Photo 13-14 图片13-14
在完成的履带上随机的添加一些潮湿效果可以营造一个消光,光泽和潮湿效果集中表现的泥土纹理。
Random wet effects were used to finish thetracks giving me a realistic multi-textured surface of matt, satin and wetareas of mud.


所以,根据我们制作的对象,橡胶履带仍然是一种不错的,合理的选择。它们的组装和涂装都非常的方便。
Rubber band type tracks can still be a reasonableoption depending on the subject. They assemble quickly and are rather easy topaint.
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 楼主| 发表于 2018-11-20 10:31:02 | 显示全部楼层

塑料活动履带的旧化 WEATHERING FRAGILE WORKABLE PLASTIC TRACK

本帖最后由 facewest 于 2018-11-20 11:39 编辑

塑料活动履带的旧化
WEATHERING FRAGILE WORKABLEPLASTIC TRACK



MK有一系列精细活动履带的产品套装供大家选择购买。虽然装备复杂而耗时,但MK套件的口碑却非常靠谱。比起其他型号,许多模友都偏爱这个牌子。
组装好的MK活动履带非常精致,不过在把玩和涂装的时候很容易断开。因此,在涂装和旧化这类精细的可动履带时必须小心小心再小心。在接下来的例子中我们使用的大部分操作技法和前两种情况中讨论的技术非常相似,所以不再赘述。让我们看一下这个例子吧,这套履带我用在了小号手KV 3001(H)上。
ModelKasten offers a series of fineinjection molded workable track link sets. Although delicate and time consuming toassemble, Modelkasten sets have a reputation of being very accurate. Manymodellers prefer them over other types of after-market track sets.
Assembled sets of Modelkasren track linksare very delicate and can sometimes fall apart rather easily when you arehandling and painting them. As a result, careful approaches when painting andweathering these and other types of delicate track sets must be taken. You willsee that most of the techniques used in this example are much like the onesdiscussed in the previous two cases. Let’s look at this example containing aset for the 12.8cm SfL/61 that I used on this Trumpeter KV 3001 (H).



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Photo 1-4 图片1-4
我用田宫漆,天然土和石膏混合了一个消光土地色,加入水稀释混合之后,用旧笔刷在履带上薄涂一层作为底色。并用喷笔采用只喷气的方式,把蘸有涂料的笔刷放在喷口前,对着履带快速扫喷一遍,这样可以让泥浆的效果更薄更轻。因为如果涂层太厚,一旦我们想要转动履带,很可能就会造成脱落。
I painted on a matt earth toned base coat Imixed a slurry from Tamiya paints, pigments and plaster. After thinning the mixusing tap water I applied a light coat over the tracks using an old paint brushand quick bursts of air from my airbrush. Keep the coats light when adding themud effects. If the dried coat is too thick the tracks will fall apart once youtry to move the links.



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Photo 5-6 图片5-6
在上一步涂装的泥浆干燥后,小心的弯曲每个连杆,确保履带仍可自由活动(您需要在每一步操作后都做一下这个动作,否则可能会导致油漆层在履带之间堆积,装配的时候就可能会散架了。)如果有必要,用纸巾擦去多余的泥浆。
After applying the slurry and letting itdry I carefully bent each link ensuring that the runs of track were stillmovable. You should perform this task after the application of each technique.Not doing so may cause the layers of paint to build up between the links causingthem to fall apart as you try to locate and position them around the model’srunning gear.  The excess dry mix ofslurry was wiped away using a paper towel.




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Photo 7 图片7
在这个例子中,我们只用天然土给履带内部增加额外的泥土色调。用少量稀释剂来晕开天然土并起到固定作用。在我们使用精细的可动履带时需要记住的另一件事就是:大量的强力稀释剂可能会造成履带的细小部分变脆散架。
On this example only pigments were used togive extra earth tones to the inner parts of the track. I used light amounts ofthinner to blend the pigments. Another thing to remember when using delicateplastic track sets is that small fine parts of plastic can be softened bystrong thinners causing them to come loose.




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Photo 8-9 图片8-9
混合浅土色Humbrol珐琅漆,天然土调制成一个湿泥色涂料,轻轻的增加泥土的色调和质地。立即用少量的松节油晕开涂料,等它干燥。此外,我还擦除了履带边缘处的涂料,保证这些部件平滑,为后面增加金属效果做准备。
A light, damp, mud colour mixed fromHumbrol enamel paints, pigments for texture, and gloss was lightly applied foradded earth tones and texture. I immediately blended the mix using lightamounts of turpentine before it could dry. I also removed the enamel mix fromthe outer edges of the cleats keeping these parts smooth for the worn steeleffects.




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Photo 10-11 图片10-11
将由Humbrol珐琅漆混合的金属色轻轻的擦在防滑钉的外部边缘,在涂抹一层石墨降低光亮度,完成金属效果。
A metallic tone mixed from Humbrol paintswas lightly dry-brushed over the outer edges of the cleats. Graphite was rubbedover the cleats to tone down the bright finish while adding more of a metallicsheen onto these effects.




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Photo 12-13 图片12-13
与之前的例子一样,用large artists铅笔制作轨道内部的金属磨损效果。这次我用箭头橡皮来混合铅笔涂抹的地方,营造自然磨损的外观。最后,将履带细心的组装到模型上就完工啦!
As demonstrated earlier a large artistspencil was used to lightly mark the worn steel effects on the interior parts ofthe track. This time I blended the pencil marks using a rubber tipped artistsshaper. After, the tracks were carefully assembled onto the model.

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涂装精致的MK活动履带有两个非常重要的注意事项:
The two important things to remember whenpainting sets of delicate Modelkasten track are the following:


1. 始终确保每一步涂装或旧化操作后履带仍然可以自由活动。如果不执行这个操作,很可能在你打算把他们装到模型上时履带就崩了。
1. Always ensure that the tracks are stillfunctional after each coat of paint and any other effects that you may decideto add. Not doing this will allow coats of paint to build up causing the linksto fall apart when you try to position them around the models runninggear.  

2. 在混合不同的效果时(尤其是在上泥浆,上天然土时),珐琅漆稀释剂一定要控制用量,千万不可过量。否则就会造成细小零件的腐蚀和松动,导致履带分崩离析。
2. Always use small amounts of enamelthinners when blending the different effects. Too much thinner may cause thefine plastic parts to come loose resulting in the runs of track falling apart.



接着,我们再看看Friulmodel金属活动履带的例子吧。
Let’s now move on to one more example usingworkable Friulmodel metal tracks.
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 楼主| 发表于 2018-11-20 10:31:29 | 显示全部楼层

金属活动履带涂装技术 PAINTING TECHNIQUES FOR WORKABLE METAL TRACKS

本帖最后由 facewest 于 2018-11-20 11:00 编辑

金属活动履带涂装技术
PAINTING TECHNIQUES FORWORKABLE METAL TRACKS


我偏爱Friulmodel的白色合金履带套装,因为他们组装方便,分量足够而且还是可动的。
之所以我会喜欢,是因为这家的履带非常坚固,而且很容易涂装。您可以简简单单的就把Friulmodel履带平放在桌子上然后上色,做旧,然后把他们装到模型上。您还可以在Friulmodel的履带上涂抹厚厚的泥土或其他效果,他们都不会脱落。在这个例子中我会使用一种叫“Quick Rust”的产品来代替底色。这种水基混合物可以与白色金属的表面反应,使其氧化,形成天然的深锈色涂层,为前面三个例子已经探讨过的旧化步骤打下良好的基础。
I prefer Friulmodel white metal alloy tracksets because they are fairly easy to assembly, heavy and workable.
I also favour them because they are strong andeasy to paint. You can simply lay Friulmodel tracks flat across the table,paint them, and then wrap the runs around the running gear of the model.  You can also apply thick coats of mud andother effects over runs of Friulmodel track and they will still work withoutfalling apart.  For this example I willbe using a product called Quick Rust instead of a basecoat. This water basedchemical blend reacts with the surface of the white metal causing it tooxidize. The dark rusty surface that results makes a good initial coat for muchof the weathering steps already discussed in the last three examples.





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Photo 1-2 图片1-2
为了氧化这些E-50的履带,我弄了个碗,倒入Quick Rust,然后准备了一套镊子和一把旧牙刷。我拉出一些销钉,把他们分成几段,这样可以让他们轻松的整个放到碗里,浸入Quick Rust溶液中。
To oxidize these runs of E-50 tracks Ineeded a bowl for the Quickrust, a set of tweezers and an old toothbrush. Ipulled a few of the wire pins out of the runs of track breaking them down intosections that could easily fit into the bowl.




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Photo 3-4 图片3-4
把一段履带放入溶液之后,我用镊子夹住它来回的快速摇动,尽量让它浸泡的均匀。您会发现履带会立刻变为棕色,这个时候需要用刷子来除去履带中间可能产生的气泡。我建议每段履带泡在溶液里的时间大约在15秒左右。
After placing a section into the solution Iquickly shook them back and forth using the tweezers. You will notice that thetracks will start to turn brown immediately. A brush will be needed to removeair bubbles trapped inside of the treads. I would recommend keeping each of thesections in the solution for about 15 seconds.




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Photo 5-7 图片5-7
在这段履带取出之后,您还可以用蘸有Quick Rust的旧牙刷在履带上再刷几遍,让溶液彻底进入各个关节处可能存在的气泡中。接下来让履带静置几分钟就可以了。有时候根据需要,还可以再施加额外的Quick Rust来制造更多的锈蚀效果。
After removing the section you can also usean old toothbrush dampened with Quick Rust to brush more of the solution intothe treads where air bubbles might have been trapped. After letting the tracksit for a few minutes you can sometimes create more rust tones by applyingadditional amounts of the Quick Rust.  




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Photo 8-9 图片8-9
这时候,您可能还会看到一些白色的金属碎屑(译者注:可能还是是因为小气泡的缘故)。您可以使用蘸有Quick rust的牙签来小心的擦拭这些地方。另外还有一种情况,这些合金有时会与QuickRust发生反应,在生锈表面流下来一些随机的看起来像是盐一样的涂层,这时候可以用硬质的刷子除去这一层盐。
You might still see some patches of whitemetal where the solution did not reach. You can rub these places using atoothpick dampened with the Quick Rust. One of the metals that make up thewhite metal alloy will sometimes react with the Quick Rust leaving what looks likerandom fine layers of salt on the rusty surface. Some of this salt can beremoved using a stiff brush.   




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Photo 10 图片10
好了,现在我有了一个漂亮的锈棕色底色。接下来我把每一段都按照上面的步骤做好,再重新拼接起来。这时候我就可以开始添加泥土色调或者应用更多的锈色。
I now have a nice rusty brown basecoat.Next I reassembled the sections of track. I could start adding the earth tonesat this point or apply some more rust tones.




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Photo 11-13 图片11-13
用丙烯水漆随机的喷涂一些锈蚀色调,然后再用斑点法,弹一些珐琅漆的浅锈色调
I applied some additional corrosion tonesby airbrushing random light coats of acrylics and then speckling enamels.




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Photo 14-15 图片14-15
我旧化这两组履带的技术基本还是采用了本章前面几节内容中展示的步骤。因此这里我就简要的介绍一下。首先还是将一些天然土随机的刷在轨道上,然后用稀释剂混合晕开。
The techniques that I used to weather thesetwo sets of track will be more of a review of the steps seen in the previousparts of this chapter so I will be brief with my descriptions. I started bybrushing some random tones of pigments onto the tracks and blended them usingenamel thinner.




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Photo 16-18 图片16-18
用田宫漆,天然土,石膏,与水稀释之后做的厚泥浆涂在履带外部。然后蘸上这些泥浆用斑点法继续施加一层获得额外的质地。等泥浆干燥之后,用硬笔刷把履带的镂空部分清理一下,同时增加更多的纹理。
A thick slurry made from Tamiya paints,pigments and Plaster of Paris thinned with water was brushed over the exteriorof the track. Additional amounts of the same slurry were then speckled foradditional texture. After the slurry had time to dry I chipped away the accesswhile at the same time adding more texture using a stiff-bristled brush.




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Photo 19-21 图片19-21
用Humbrol珐琅漆,天然土和珐琅清漆调制深色湿泥土,随机的涂在履带上,并用稀释剂混合晕开。当然,还可以用斑点法再弹一些上去。
Darker satin earth tones mixed from brownHumbrol enamel, pigments and a gloss varnish were randomly brushed on the trackand blended.



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Photo 22-23 图片22-23
接下来,使用珐琅清漆添加一些潮湿区域。
Next an enamel gloss was used to add somewet areas.



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Photo 24-28 图片24-28
用砂纸把履带外侧抛一下光,露出防滑钉上的白色金属材质。然后用铅笔抛光一下履带内侧,再用箭头橡皮把铅笔印记有效的混合起来。形成正式的金属磨损效果。
The outer sides of the track were polishedusing sandpaper to expose the white metal on the raised cleats. The polishedmetallic inner sides of the tracks where obtained using a large pencil thenblended using a rubber tipped artist sharpener.


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这一期,我们已经介绍了四种履带旧化的例子。和模型其余部分旧化用到的材料和方法大致相同。但有时候技法也会根据履带的材质、活动性要求而不同。履带应该像模型其他部分一样被我们认真的涂装和旧化,确保他们既真实又有趣。下面,我们继续举例说明如何在模型上添加厚重的尘土和泥土效果。
At this point we have covered four examples forweathering tracks. Most of the paints and methods used are the same as the onesapplied to the rest of the model. Sometimes these techniques can vary as to howfragile the tracks are, if they are workable or not and what they are madefrom. Tracks should be weathered in layers like the rest of the AFV to ensurethat they are both authentic and interesting to look at. Let’s continue withsome examples of adding heavy dust and thick layers of earth onto a model.
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 楼主| 发表于 2018-11-20 10:32:02 | 显示全部楼层

厚重尘土和泥土效果 HEAVY DUST AND THICK LAYERS OF EARTH

本帖最后由 facewest 于 2018-11-20 11:23 编辑

厚重尘土和泥土效果
HEAVY DUST AND THICK LAYERSOF EARTH


厚重尘土和泥土能够为车辆增色不少!
Thick layers of dust and mud can really adda lot of character to a vehicle.


通过参考二战和现代战车的照片,可看到根据环境和所在区域的不同,可能会有大量的灰尘和泥土附着在这些车辆上。厚厚的泥层可以和其他旧化效果结合,给模型提供一种有趣的效果。但在制作中,这些厚泥层需要分层堆积才能看起来更加自然。
Viewing photos of both WWII and modern AFVswill show that large amounts of dust and earth, depending on the environmentand theater of operations, would often quickly adhere to these vehicles. Thicklayers of mud can really give another interesting level of effects inconjunction with the other weathering. These thick coats of earth need to bebuilt up in layers in order to look natural.


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在这一部分,我们将看两个如何制作厚重尘土层的例子。第一个是冬季虎式属于常规范例,第二个例子中,我们将通过涂抹厚厚的湿泥和海滩沙来继续那辆LVT的旧化。
In this part we are going to look at twoexamples of how to build up heavy dust and thick layers of earth. The firstexample over a winter Tiger I will be more of a normal instance. In the secondexample we will be continuing the weathering of the LVT-(A) by applying heavycoats of wet mud and beach sand.



前面几个章节已经讨论过我们构建大量灰尘和厚土层所需掌握的大部分技法。现在,就让我们速度从第一个例子开始吧。
You will observe that much of thetechniques we will be using to build up heavy dust and thick layers of earthhave already been discussed throughout the past chapters. Let’s get going withour first example.



构建泥土
BUILT UP LAYERS OF MUD



其实如果用在模型上,厚厚的泥层并不意味着一定要用大量的泥土。
Thick built up layers of mud, when properlyapplied onto a model, are actually not that substantial.



实施上,完成这些效果并不会像您想象的那样会遮盖掉很多细节。您其实已经可以看出来在包含了哑光,缎面和光泽纹理这些层上进行旧化,往往能达到最真实的效果。但往往厚泥土能做的更加逼真,前面的几个小节已经充分展示了,所以在做这一节的内容时,我们还需要不断的回顾。让我们来快速的看看第一个旧化步骤,这个步骤将成为后续应用较重泥土效果的基础。
In fact these effects when done correctlywill not really hide as much of the fine details as you might think. You nowhave seen that weathering is most authentic when done in different layerscontaining areas of matt, satin and glossy textures. This could not be truerfor thick layers of mud. The first steps in this segment were demonstratedearlier so they will be more of a review. Let’s start by again quickly lookingat the first weathering steps that are needed to act as a base for the heaviereffects applied after.



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Photo 1-3 图片1-3
首先,我用田宫漆混合一个灰尘色底色(译者注:所用色号有XF52,XF57,XF19,XF8,但具体比例不明……)。然后加入少量蓝色(蓝色有助于给完成后的模型带来一种湿冷的感觉,仿佛就伫立在那个冷冬中一样。)接着将这个底色随机的喷涂在炮塔和行走装置的不同部位上。需要注意的是,别忘了通过此步骤为各个部件创建对比。
I started with a base coat of dust mixedfrom Tamiya paints. A small amount of blue was added to the mix. The blue wouldhelp give a feeling of damp coldness to the completed model as it was depictedto be in a cold winter setting. Light amounts of the dust mix were randomlyairbrushed over different parts of the hull turret and running gear. Rememberto use this step to also help create contrast between parts.




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Photo 4 图片 4
还是用与前面相同的四种田宫漆混合的泥土色,加水稀释后,对车体,炮塔和挡泥板侧面制作一点雨痕。这一步还用于给炮塔和车体上部增加更多的随机浮尘效果。
Rainmarks were also applied to the sides ofthe hull, turret and fenders using an earth tone mixed form the same fourTamiya colors, this time diluted with water. This step was also used to addmore random dust effects to the upper parts of the turret and hull.



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Photo 5-7 图片5-7
用上一步调制的泥土色,混合四种不同色调的天然土,调制出一个深一点的浮尘色调,涂在炮塔和车体上部,然后用珐琅漆稀释剂晕开混合。
Four different pigment colors were blendedover the dust tones created with the Tamiya colors in the previous step. Anenamel thinner was used to blend the pigments.




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Photo 8 图片8
由于这个模型中做成了挡泥板脱落的状态,所以我知道车体后部将会有大量的泥浆。我还是用之前喷涂用的田宫漆混合天然土来制作这个区域的泥土效果。
As a result of the missing fenders I knewthat large amounts of mud would be present on the rear of the hull. I startedbuilding up these areas using the pigments over the Tamiya earth tonesairbrushed before.




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Photo 9 图片9
同时,用深土色天然土直接刷在一些细节周围,例如驾驶员观察口挡板上,用以在这些部件和车体其余部分之间创造对比。
During this time dry dark earth tonedpigments were brushed around some of the details such as the front driver'svisor to create contrast amongst these parts and the rest of the hull.




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Photo 10-12 图片10-12
在之前用田宫漆调制的土地色中加入一点XF63,把整体色调调暗一些。喷涂到车体内侧和内侧路轮上,以创建阴影。
I added some grey to the same earth tonemixed back in photo one darkening it a bit. A fine coat of this darker earthtone was airbrushed onto the shadowed under sides of the hull and inner wheelsof the running gear.  



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Photo 13-15 图片13-15
还是用本章节我用到的田宫漆和天然土以及石膏兑水的混合物,作为我下面要操作的泥浆。用刷子刷到车体后部,并用喷笔喷气的方法把笔刷对着模型快速吹一点泥浆,进一步增加色调。等干燥后,用改造过的硬笔刷把多余的或者感觉操作过度的泥浆擦掉,让干燥后的泥土更加逼真一些。操作的时候不需要太用力,只需要轻轻的擦,干燥后的泥土就会剥落。
I mixed my reliable slurry as demonstratedthroughout this chapter using Tamiya paints, pigments, plaster and tap water. Iadded this mix onto the hull rear with a brush and quick bursts of air from myairbrush further building up the mud tones. Once dry, a modified stiff bristledbrush was used to remove some of the excess texture that was out of scalegiving the dry earth more of a convincing surface. Just lightly rub the stiffbristled brush and some of the texture of the dry slurry will simply crumbleaway.   




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Photo 16-18 图片16-18
还是用上面喷笔喷气的方式把泥浆吹到车轮上。涂上看到的这个自制的车轮固定夹具是我自己用废旧塑料片自制的,用于防止车轮在这个步骤被吹的在桌子上到处跑。接着还是一样,用改造过的硬笔刷除去一些不必要的部分。
More of the slurry was applied to thewheels using an old paint brush and quick bursts of air from my airbrush. Notethe homemade jig constructed from sheet plastic used to keep the wheels frombeing blown across the table durring this step. Once more I removed some of theexcess texture using a modified stiff bristled brush.   




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Photo 19-20 图片19-20
在车轮的外径上刷上更多的泥浆。然后翻过来,把刚才涂过的面在一个平坦的表面压一下,让泥浆变平。到这里只是暂时完工,后面还有步骤。
More of the slurry was brushed onto theouter diameter of some of the wheels. Next I pressed the wheel onto a flatsurface to flatten the slurry. We will discuss why this was donemomentarily.  




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Photo 21-22 图片21-22
用棕色珐琅漆,油画颜料(从图中可以看出是 ABT502 的浅泥色),天然土,和光泽清漆混合调制深色湿泥土色。在车体和行走装置上较浅的区域随机的上添加一些这种湿泥土色,操作上还是用喷笔喷气的方式吹上去。
A dark damp earth tone was mixed using abrown enamel, oil paint, pigments and a gloss varnish. The darker tone wasapplied randomly over the lighter earth areas on the hull and running gear,again using quick bursts of air from my airbrush.   




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Photo 23-25 图片23-25
注意,这种湿泥土色还需要在车轮边缘也刷一层,并用珐琅漆稀释剂巧妙的混合。车体上部也可以选择性的添加一些湿泥土色。记住,可以通过这个步骤在车体上部的细节之间创建更多的对比。
This damp earth tone was also brushed ontothe outer edges of some of the road wheels and subtly blended using enamelthinner. More damp earth was also applied to the upper hull and also blended.Remember that you can use this step to create even more contrast betweendetails on the upper parts of the model.  



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虽然车体下部和行走装置上的一些细节被泥土掩盖了,但不可否认,厚重的泥土色调对展示这辆冬季虎式的气势非常有帮助。泥土层能够带领观看者感受到它在潮湿粗糙的环境中行驶、作战那种浓浓的历史感
Although some of the fine details werecovered on the running gear and lower hull it cannot be denied that the heavyearth tones contribute greatly to the imposing look of this winter veteranTiger I. The layers of mud help give the viewer a feeling as to the damp roughenvironment in which this vehicle operated giving more of a historical sense tothe model.


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通过图片和我们的操作,您还可以看到,浮尘,干泥浆和潮湿泥土几种色调和效果是如何结合在一起,为模型提供更多的纹理和真实的外观。需要注意的是,深色湿泥土色调应该如何涂在车辆的车轮上,为占模型表面相当部分的行走装置赋予生命力。图片20中为什么要把后泥浆按平呢?是为了表现虎式战车重叠车轮中内部因为轮子的滚动挤压所造成的实际效果。
You can also see how the airbrushed dusttones, dry earth slurry and enamel damp earth mixes all work together giving amulti-textured authentic looking coat of weathering effects to the model. Notehow the dark damp earth tones were painted mostly onto the wheels of thevehicle giving life to the running gear that makes up a very large part of themodels surface. The thick mud that we pressed in photo 20 represents theterrain that has been pushed smooth on the inner wheels by the the outer overlappingones.  



这之前章节中的潮湿效果一样,请注意我们用珐琅漆调制的湿泥土是如何运用在车体上部和炮塔部分的,并用松节油混合晕开。与行走装置一样,这种潮湿泥土有助于“打破”由干燥泥土营造的较浅的单一色调,同时为模型增添更多的潮湿的外观。为了继续说明这些,我们一起来看一下LVT上另一种重度旧化的例子吧。
Like with the wet effects in the previouschapters note how the damp enamel mix was also applied to parts of the upperhull and turret then blended with turpentine. As on the running gear this dampearth will help to break up the dry lighter coloured dust tones while alsoadding more of a damp cold look to the model. With all of this in mind letslook at another example of heavy weathering on the LVT-(A) 1.

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 楼主| 发表于 2018-11-20 10:32:33 | 显示全部楼层

厚重潮湿泥土 THICK WET LAYERS OF MUD

本帖最后由 facewest 于 2018-11-20 11:32 编辑

厚重潮湿泥土
THICK WET LAYERS OF MUD

接下来我们用本书之前章节已经做完浮尘和雨痕效果的LVT做例子来讨论。
Let’s move on with the LVT-(A)1 that westated weathering earlier in this book when applying the dust tones andrainmarks.


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在这个例子中,我们将用一些不同的技法来呈现在热带环境中的战车上那种厚厚的湿泥土层。同样,有些步骤的技法已经在前面展示过很多次了。
On this example we are going to continuewith using some different approaches for obtaining layers of thick wet mud onan AFV in a tropical setting. Again some of the steps will contain techniquesthat will be more of a review.  



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Photo 1-4 图片1-4
和上一个例子相同,用田宫漆,天然土和石膏混合浅土色泥浆后,用斑点法弹在车身侧面和行走装置的部分位置,然后用笔刷按垂直向下刷,创造垂纹。
I started by applying a light earth slurrymixed from Tamiya paints, pigments and plaster using the speckling technique. Iremoved the excessive over scale texture using a few dry clean paintbrushes.Use a downward motion when removing the texture on the sides of the hull.




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Photo 5-8 图片5-8
我需要在履带下方创建一个泥土层。我是通过先堆积大量天然土,然后用滴管一点点的在上面滴上固定液的方式来实现的。重复两到三次这样的操作,知道获得图片8中的效果为止。
I needed to build up layers of earth underthe tracks. I did this by piling up bits of pigments and applying tiny amountsof fixer using a pipette. I needed to repeat this step two to three times untilI obtained the result in photo eight.



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Photo 9-11 图片9-11
用刚才调的浅色泥浆,采用斑点法给履带覆盖位置继续添加浅土色,给刚才涂抹的厚重泥土增加更多的纹理。同时,我还会在履带后部的内侧,下部车轮(更靠近地面),以及车轮护板外侧这些通常泥土堆积的地方弹上更多的泥浆。然后再用干笔刷除去一些不必要的泥浆,并作出垂纹。
I continued to add more light earth byspeckling using the same slurry applied in photo one to add more texture ontothe built up mud. I also decided to speckle more of the slurry around theinsides behind the tracks, onto the lower road wheels and onto the outer sideswhere large amounts of earth would fall due to the angled mud hopper. Again Iremoved some of the unwanted clumps of texture with a vertical motion using adry brush.   




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Photo 12-14 图片12-14
上述操作后放置24小时左右,我会用笔刷再堆积一些天然土在履带上。并在车轮侧挡板上添加垂纹。之后再用干笔刷垂直扫动除去多余的泥土。
I decided to brush more of the earth tonedslurry over the built up pigments after they had about 24 hours or so to set. Ialso used this earth mix to apply vertical streaks under the mud guards. Again,part of the Tamiya pigment plaster mix was removed using a vertical sweepingmotion with a dry clean paint brush.   



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Photo 15-17 图片15-17
接下来和之前的例子一样,用棕色珐琅漆,泥土色天然土,油画颜料,珐琅稀释剂调制深泥色,在之前的干泥色上随机的涂上这个深泥色调,再用斑点法弹到行走装置上。
For added earth tones I painted on a darkermud colour mixed from an enamel brown, earth coloured pigments and artist oils,then blended it using enamel thinner. After, I thinned the enamel mix andspeckled it over the layers of thick mud and onto the running gear.   




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Photo 18-20 图片18-20
车辆侧面靠后的位置,施加更多一点的深泥色。侧挡板上同样也要做一些深土色垂纹,丰富色彩,在这之后就可以将履带装上了。
I blended some more of the dark earth mixonto the sides more toward the rear of the vehicle. Dark earth streaks werealso blended under the mud guards. The tracks were placed onto the model atthis time.   




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Photo 21-23 图片21-23
这辆LVT旧化处理的最关键特征之一就是潮湿效果。 我在本书前面已经提过,潮湿效果的光泽色调能有助于帮助你“打破”消光的泥土色调,同时增加区域和细节之间的对比。图21中可以看到这辆已经有点生锈的Geschuzwagen Tiger Fur17cm自走炮的舱内添加了大量的潮湿效果,为模型增添了完全不同的质感。接着看图22和23,这辆LVT上的潮湿效果都是用珐琅清漆少量稀释制作的,多数时候稀释比例是:珐琅清漆4:稀释剂1。
One of the key weathering traits to thisLVT finish are the wet effects. I have said earlier in this book that wetglossy effects can break up your matt earth tones while adding contrast toareas and details. The large wet effects added to the interior of this rustymatt Geschuzwagen Tiger Fur 17cm added a whole different texture making thisphoto more interesting. These wet effects and much of the ones on this LVT wereapplied using an enamel gloss right out of the bottle with a little thinner inorder to make it a bit easier to apply. Most of the wet effects applied to thismodel were made from a mix of about four parts enamel gloss and one partthinner.



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Photo 24-26 图片24-26
图片24中这辆T64上可以看到,干燥的排气管周围却被深色调的湿泥土色包围,这就是一个很好的例子,来说明湿泥土和潮湿效果是如何在部件和细节之间创造对比的。我们继续在LVT车体上方的前部运用潮湿效果让大小面板之间建立对比,使得这个模型中其实没有任何特征的部分具备了额外的吸引力。在这些面板上用斑点法再弹一些光泽清漆上去有助于巧妙的统一潮湿效果,显得更加自然。
The fairly dry T-64 exhaust in photo 24surrounded by the darker moist mud on the fender is a great example as to howdamp earth and wet effects can add contrast between parts and details. On theLVT contrast was created between the small and large plates on the upper fronthull using wet effects making this rather featureless part of the model muchmore appealing.  Speckling more of thegloss mix over these panels helped to subtly unify the wet effects making theeffect more natural.  




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Photo 27-28 图片27-28
Vallejo品牌的Still Water产品(译者注:mig,AK,好像都有类似的潮湿效果液产品,大家可以选择购买使用)用来给厚厚的泥层提供湿润饱满的外观,这种混合物也可以被刷到履带上,让它们看起来也同样湿润。如果要使用Vallejo Still Water,首先要确保您的履带已经安装到模型上,尽管这款产品需要四到五个小时的干燥时间,但一旦固话,履带就无法活动了。
Vallejo Still Water was used to give a verywet saturated appearance to the thick layers of mud. This mix was also brushedonto the track making them look equally as wet. Make sure that your tracks areattached onto the model if you are going to give them a coat of Vallejo StillWater. Although it took the Vallejo Still Water four or five hours to dry thetracks were unmovable once it had solidified.




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Photo 29-30 图片29-30
最后再用珐琅清漆在两侧添加一些潮湿的垂纹就正式完工了。
I returned to using the enamel gloss to addthe rest of the runs on the sides of the model.


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厚厚的泥浆和潮湿效果是让这个模型看起来既真实又独特的两个主要特征。同样,掉漆,CM色调调节和其他效果也起着重要的作用,但环境效果,泥土色调肯定会成为快速吸睛的重点。通过这款LVT和前面的那辆虎式,我向大家展示了模型玩家怎样通过重度旧化展现自己的创造力,为他们的模型添加生命力和原创性。
The areas of thick mud and wet effects aretwo of the primary features that make this model look both realistic andunique. The chipping, colour modulation and other effects also play animportant role in the model’s completed appearance, but the earth tones willcertainly work as one of the quick eye catching features drawing attention tothe piece. With this LVT and the Tiger I, I have demonstrated how heavyweathering can give the modeller another level of creativity for adding lifeand originality to their a replica.


本章结束我们就完成了关于环境效果的讨论。虽然这是本书中篇幅最大的一章,但仍然有一些效果需要在后面的章节中给大家补充,它们将进一步增强您的模型成品的外观。下一章,我们将介绍有关钢制车轮的涂装和修饰技法。
This part will complete this chapter on addingearth tones and effects. Although the largest chapter in this book there arestill a few effects that I will demonstrate in the remaining parts that willfurther enhance the appearance of your finished model. In the next chapter wewill look at techniques for finishing steel road wheels.

本期完!敬请期待下周完结篇吧!
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发表于 2018-11-20 12:40:19 | 显示全部楼层
謝謝樓主的分享!
辛苦了
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发表于 2018-11-20 14:33:01 | 显示全部楼层
楼主辛苦!
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发表于 2018-11-20 15:42:44 | 显示全部楼层
亚当大师真是细节狂魔
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发表于 2018-11-20 15:45:28 | 显示全部楼层
太棒了,感谢楼主
来自安卓客户端来自安卓客户端
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