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[原创资料翻译] [连载] 亚当的模型指导书 下册 完结篇 油脂油渍和烟熏效果

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发表于 2018-11-27 10:04:16 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
本帖最后由 facewest 于 2018-11-27 13:10 编辑

终于来到了本系列连载的完结篇。正如上一期所说,本书还剩下5个小章节,每章的篇幅都不大,选择2个章节翻译给大家。缺少的内容并不影响大家学习和参考,仅仅是为了对知识产权的一点点保护。

这本书可以说浓缩了战车模型涂装的方方面面,亚当已经把对于战车涂装的理解和方法尽数的呈现在了这本书籍里,虽然受制于篇幅和图文本身的表达限制,很多时候我们可能会似懂非懂,仍然有很多疑问,这恐怕就需要我们自己不断的练习和摸索了。模型是一门艺术,每个模友都会有自己的风格,书里的技法仅仅是基础,你们的想象力和创造力才是每个模型的灵魂。大家可能通过我自己的帖子也已经看到,我的模型制作涂装水平还处在小学生阶段,搁在论坛里和各位高手一比,那简直是不忍直视。别说亚当大师,可能我一辈子都达不到论坛中高手们的水平,但这并不影响我快乐的做模型,用自己的想法去构建一个个场景和一辆辆战车,只是因为我喜欢。

这三个多月,翻译文稿将近十万字,全部免费呈现给了广大模友。初衷仅仅是因为我这个模型新手的渣做不仅没有挨喷,反而得到了很多的鼓励和宝贵建议,所以我希望通过自己的一点点努力回馈这个和谐的论坛,同样也希望论坛这样的好风气能够继续保持下去。

整个连载期间,得到了很多版主和模友的无私帮助,就不一一圈出来罗列了。非常感谢你们!也感谢技术分享区的几位版主的肯定,帮我的帖子加精射分。最后,当然最大的收获是认识了更多的爱好模型的朋友。模型这个孤独的爱好最怕就是“欲摘一枝倾一盏,西楼无客共谁尝”,让做模型的人越来越多吧!
如果大家还希望看到什么教程的翻译,就尽情留言给我吧。等我下个空档期,再给大家呈现更加精彩的模型世界!


本系列所有连载传送门:
第一期:色彩区分 http://www.moxdao.com/thread-56135-1-1.html
第二期:底色和迷彩喷涂  http://www.moxdao.com/thread-56231-1-1.html
第三期:色调调节  http://www.moxdao.com/thread-56473-1-1.html
第四期:滤镜: http://www.moxdao.com/thread-57160-1-1.html
第五期: 图案和标识徽章  http://www.moxdao.com/thread-57797-1-1.html
第六期:发胶掉漆制作冬季涂装  http://www.moxdao.com/thread-57939-1-1.html
第八期:褪色和添加阴影 http://www.moxdao.com/thread-58663-1-1.html
第九期: 常规掉漆  http://www.moxdao.com/thread-58789-1-1.html
第十期: 发胶掉漆  http://www.moxdao.com/thread-58971-1-1.html
第十一期: 外部装备涂装 http://www.moxdao.com/thread-59092-1-1.html
第十二期: 钢制表面涂装和锈 http://www.moxdao.com/thread-59741-1-1.html
第十三期: 浮尘、雨痕和泥浆 http://www.moxdao.com/thread-60200-1-1.html
第十四期: 履带旧化和厚重泥土  http://www.moxdao.com/thread-60390-1-1.html

声明:所有图书和图片的版权均归原作者和原出版社所有,任何人不得用于商业用途。翻译稿暂时只在模型岛放出,欢迎转载,但请提前联系本人。非常感谢!


15 SIMULATING OIL, GREASEAND SPLIT FUEL 模拟油脂、油渍,以及燃油的溢出


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油脂,油渍以及燃油的溢出是一种非常有趣的效果,制作过程也充满乐趣。
Oil, grease and spilt fuel are interestingeffects that are always fun to apply.



15-00-02.jpg
这些效果,以及其他所有旧化效果有助于给模型带来逼真感受。这款Geschuzwagen TigerFur 17cm自走炮稳定器上光泽的深色油脂效果与刚才的消光浅锈色表面形成了鲜明的对比。
These effects, along with all of the otherweathering, help to give a gritty feeling of both usage and history to a model.The sleek, darker grease effects on this Geschuzwagen Tiger Fur 17cmstabilization foot contrast very nicely with the lighter matt rusty finish ofthe steel.


15-00-03.jpg
本章分为两个部分。第一部分名为“油脂和油渍”,第二部分名为“燃油溢出”。每个部分都将包含几个例子来说明在什么位置和怎么应用这些效果。让我们开始吧。
This section has been broken down into twoparts. The first is entitled, “Oil and Grease” and the second is called“SpiltFuel”. Each of the sections will contain a number of examples of how and whereto apply these effects. Let’s now continue.




OIL AND GREASE 油脂和油渍


现在我们一起来看看燃油和机油效果的制作。
Here we are going to look at some methodsfor applying grease and oil effects.



您需要知道的是:真实的油脂和油渍通常是光泽或者缎面的。而且会有灰尘附在新鲜的油脂上,所以我们在制作这些效果的时候通常应该有泥土色调。
You should remember that authentic greaseand oil stains usually contain both satin and glossy areas. Dust adheres to offresh grease so these effects should usually have earth tones present.  



如今,市场上很多不同公司生产的现成产品,帮助模友快速创建基本的油脂效果。当然,有些朋友还是喜欢自己调漆制作,这样有不同材质的涂料可供选择使用。大多数情况我们都是在大部分旧化步骤完成之后再制作油脂和油渍效果。首先我会举个例子展示一些在环境效果和泥土色调上应用这些效果的常规方法。在最后一个例子中,包含了更多的步骤来展现我用一大块油脂来“打破”一辆T-34异常干净的车体表面。
Today there are pre-mixed products on themarket from different companies to help modellers quickly apply basic greaseand oil effects. Of course some people still prefer to mix their own and thereare a number of different mediums that can be used. Most of the time grease andoil effects are applied after much of the weathering steps. I will start byshowing a few typical ways to place these effects over earth tones. The lastexample will need a few more steps as I apply some large grease runs to breakup the side of a rather clean T-34 hull.



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Photo 1-3 图片1-3
使用市场上的那些预混合成品可能是应用油脂效果最快的方法。使用前请充分摇匀,确保所有颜料都已经彻底混合。
The pre-mixed effects available on themarket are probably the quickest way to apply basic oil and grease effects.First shake the bottle well making sure that all of the pigments have beenthoroughly mixed.



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Photo 4-8 图片4-8
而这辆JSU-152上的油渍效果只是简单的用棕色和黑色油画颜料混合而成的。再加入一点珐琅清漆,用稀释剂稀释一下就可以用了。或者你可以先涂到模型上,然后用稀释剂将其晕开。这个颜色大量稀释后也可以用作渍洗使用,例如这里我就用在了车轮的轮毂周围。
The oil effects applied to this JSU-152were simply mixed using brown and black oil paints. Enamel gloss was also addedand the whole mix was then diluted with thinner. You can apply the mix on inthick opaque amounts then blend it. More diluted amounts can also be brushed onas a wash such as I added around the hubs of the road wheels.




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Photo 9-10 图片9-10
对于这辆战车上加农炮的炮管反冲导轨和车轮上采取的方法不同。首先,我用丙烯水漆在抛光区域涂一点浅灰色,然后在灰色调上擦抹几层石墨。
The rails and wheels for the recoil of this17cm cannon required a different approach. First I brushed a light grey toneover what would be the polished areas using acrylics. Next I rubbed a fewlayers of graphite over the grey tones.  



15-01-11.jpg    15-01-12.jpg
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Photo 11-13 图片11-13
下面用稀释过的珐琅清漆混合深灰色天然土调成油脂色,涂在润滑油脂区域。
A random coat consisting of some thinnedenamel gloss with a dark grey pigment finished the grease areas.



15-01-14.jpg    15-01-15.jpg    15-01-16.jpg
Photo 14-16 图片14-16
在这辆LVT的悬挂上,我用棕色珐琅漆,珐琅清漆和一些深灰色天然土混合油脂颜色。稀释后在可能存在油脂的位置重度渍洗。完成后,对它呈现出来的半消光效果并不是很满意,有又田宫烟色来增加轮毂中心位置的光泽度。
In the case of the suspension on this LVT abrown enamel was mixed with some enamel gloss and some dark grey pigments. Themix was then diluted and applied as a thick wash in specific areas where freshgrease would be present. Not being totally content with the semi-satin finishof these effects I decided to apply some Tamiya smoke to increase theglossiness around the center of the hub.  




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Photo 17-20 图片17-20
在这辆Geschuzwagen Tiger自走炮上,我用棕色珐琅漆,深灰色天然土和光泽清漆混合后,用稀释剂调节不同强度的油脂随机的涂在车体上部的这块大面板周围。干燥后,田宫烟色在深灰色区域进行随机的渍洗,目的是在油脂堆积区域获得随机的光泽效果。
For this Geschuzwagen Tiger a very viscouswash of brown enamels, dark grey pigments and gloss varnish was mixed. Thethinned mix was placed randomly at different intensities around the perimeterof the large plate located on the upper hull. Tamiya smoke was then appliedrandomly over the dark grey satin wash after it had dried for a bit mostly intothe seam in order to obtain random glossy regions in the grease effects.  

15-01-21.jpg    15-01-22.jpg
Photo 21-22 图片21-22
在这个例子中,您可以观察到油脂效果可以用来帮助区分这两个面板。您还可以看到,这些在不同光泽的表面下的可见度情况(译者注:例如在光泽表面,消光表面等底色上油脂呈现是反光效果)。在路轮上用相同手法添加一点润滑油效果,能让之前的缎面区域上再次呈现出新鲜的光泽。
You can observe in this example how grease andoil effects can be used to help distinguish these two plates from each other.You can also see that these grease stains, visible at different intensities,contain authentic glossy and satin regions. The grease effects were appliedonto some of the road wheels in the same manner giving realistic fresh glossyand older satin regions.

15-01-23.jpg    15-01-24.jpg
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Photo 23-25 图片23-25
这里我想通过制作一个较大面积的油渍来“打破”这辆T-34 侧面较为简单的色调。通常来说,在油脂周围应该存在一定的陙效果,而且这个区域只能轻度的旧化。所以,第一步,我在车体侧面用珐琅漆刷了一点泥土效果,然后用稀释剂晕开混合它们。下一步,我用相同的方式添加一些深土色珐琅漆来创造明暗的变化。
I wanted to apply a rather large grease affectto break up the side of this T-34. Dust effects should usually be presentaround grease effects and this area contained only light weathering. For thefirst step I brushed on some enamel earth effects then blended them usingthinner. Next I added some darker enamel earth effects in the same manner tocreate light variations in the tones.

15-01-26.jpg    15-01-27.jpg
Photo 26-27 图片26-27
用大比例稀释的珐琅清漆,制作潮湿垂纹,再用斑点法弹一些统一潮湿效果。
Wet runs were added using thinned amountsof enamel gloss. More wet effects were applied using the speckling technique tosubtly unify the runs.

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Photo 28-31 图片28-31
等上一步的操作干燥之后,我用哑光深灰色珐琅漆加一些清漆混合成不那么透明的缎面涂料,稀释之后,垂直得涂在可能存在油渍或油污的地方(包括挡泥板上)。然后,又用一些浅土色天然土轻轻的点在挡泥板(水平面)上油渍的边缘,糅合色调。
After letting the earth and wet effects dryI continued by adding some opaque satin oil runs mixed from a dark enamel mattgrey and some gloss. The mix was diluted with thinner. I applied some lightearth pigments to blend the edges of the stains on the fenders.

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Photo 32-33 图片32-33
我用田宫烟色,加一点点船底红(X-19和XF-9)调了一个光滑的半透明色调。用喷笔喷在车侧和挡泥板的油渍区域。让油脂看起来好像被浮尘吸收了一样。
I mixed a glossy semi transparent toneusing Tamiya smoke with just a bit of hull red. I airbrushed the tone over thedark grease runs, under the grill and onto the fenders. Airbrushing  the glossy semi-transparent Tamiya mix inthis manner made the grease effects look as though they had been absorbed bythe capillary action of the dust.

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Photo 34-36 图片34-36
这种方式喷涂之后,再用尘土色天然土在边缘做一些修饰,并用珐琅漆稀释剂晕开混合。这样就全部完成了。
I finished by applying some more dust tonedpigments around the runs of grease and blending them with enamel thinner.




这些都是我应用油渍和油污的各种技术和材料。创造性的应用这个效果可以在诸如GeschuzwagenTiger这样的战车上车体的面板之间创造对比,或者用来打破诸如T-34侧面那种大平面。还有一点需要注意,在有油污和油渍的地方也应该有尘土效果。下面一节,我们来看一下制作燃料溢出效果的几个例子。
These are all examples of the various techniquesand different mediums that I use to apply areas of oil and grease. Rememberthat these effects, when applied creatively, can also create contrast amongstparts such as on the upper hull plate of the Geschuzwagen Tiger or simply breakup large flat surfaces like on the side of the T-34/122. Also remember thatwhere there is grease and oil dust effects should also be present. Let’s lookat a few examples of creating spilt fuel effects.

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 楼主| 发表于 2018-11-27 10:04:37 | 显示全部楼层

燃油溢出 SPILT FUEL

本帖最后由 facewest 于 2018-11-27 10:09 编辑

燃油溢出 SPILT FUEL


燃油溢出效果和油污油渍效果非常的像,通常都伴随着尘土在周围。
Spilt fuel effects are much like oil andgrease in that they usually coincide with dust.


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Photo 1-2 图片1-2
在这个例子中我们可以非常简便地在JS-3的圆柱形燃料箱上制作燃料溢出效果。首先我用水性漆调制浮尘色,然后用喷笔薄喷一条垂直的区域。需要说明一下,在这里我使用了遮盖带,是因为我参考实车图片中燃油溢出一边有非常犀利笔直的边缘,而另外一边这是比较柔和的,所以我采用遮盖带遮住了一边营造笔直锋利的效果。接下来,在这个尘土色带上再添加一点天然土(图片中可以看到上的是浅色欧洲土)。
The spilt fuel effects added to thecylindrical fuel tank of the JS-3 were rather easy to make. I started with alight airbrushed coat of dust mixed from acrylics. Tape was used because theeffects in my reference photo had a rather straight edge on one side while theopposite was more blended.  Next a layerof pigments was applied over the base of light earth..




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Photo 3-5 图片3-5
用珐琅清漆和油画颜料混合调制透明棕色,然后在尘土色底上垂直得涂出燃油溢出效果(译者注:注意,这里不要涂到尘土色外面去。
A transparent brown tone mixed from glossenamels and artist oils was used to finish the effect.  




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Photo 6-8 图片6-8
我在这辆LVT上绘制燃料污渍的方法与用田宫清漆涂装JS-3的方式几乎一样。首先,我用哑光棕色珐琅漆混合新鲜沙子,兑一点点稀释剂制造一点光泽效果,形成我们所需的颜色。
The method I used to apply the fuel stainson this LVT was pretty much the same as on the JS-3 accept Tamiya clear paintswere used in place of the oils and enamel gloss. To start, a satin coat offresh sand was mixed using a matt brown enamel and some gloss diluted with alittle thinner.   




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Photo 9-11 图片9-11
用田宫透明色(透明红和透明黄)调配处新鲜燃料的橙色调,并多用一些稀释剂稀释成类似渍洗液的程度。用这种方式制作燃料溢出效果时,您需要格外小心,稀释剂是一种强溶剂,如果在某一个区域涂的太多,或者涂的时间太久,很可能会腐蚀底下的漆面。
An orange fresh fuel tone was mixed usingTamiya clear colors that I thinned into a wash using lacquer thinner. You needto be careful and quick when applying spilt fuel effects in this manner.Lacquer thinner is a strong solvent and will quickly attack the base coat ifyou manipulate the paint for too long in one area.


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最后这幅图上的T-72就是燃料溢出如何帮助增加细节之间的对比度的例子。通过燃油溢出,很容易就把这个备用油箱从挡泥板区域凸显出来了。燃料溢出效果非常易于操作,并能给您的模型增添生命力,同时还为我们提供了另一种创建对比的方法。
The T-72 is an example of how areas of spiltfuel can help to add contrast between details. It is simple to see the externalfuel tank that sticks out from the others on the fender. Spilt fuel effects areeasy to apply and can help to give life to a scale model while also giving usone more way to create contrasting parts.
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 楼主| 发表于 2018-11-27 10:04:50 | 显示全部楼层

排气管和烟熏效果 EXHAUST AND SMOKE EFFECTS

本帖最后由 facewest 于 2018-11-27 10:28 编辑

16 排气管和烟熏效果 EXHAUST AND SMOKE EFFECTS


涂装排气管和烟熏效果真的不复杂。
Exhaust and smoke effects are fairlyuncomplicated to paint.



虽然我在实施环境效果前就对排气管进行了涂装,但通常要等到旧化步骤完成后再添加烟熏效果。首先用消光黑色丙烯水漆渍洗喷涂一边烟熏效果,然后在喷涂的区域添加一些黑色天然土。有时候,为了营造柴油发动起排气的真实效果,我还会在黑色中加入一点蓝色表现氧化颜色。让我们来看几个例子吧。
Though I paint the exhaust pipes prior toadding any earth tones, I usually wait until after the weathering steps are completedbefore applying any smoke effects. I usually start by carefully airbrushing thesmoke effects using a matt black acrylic then brush on some black pigments overthese areas. Sometimes I will add light amounts of blue and oxide colors to theblack when creating diesel exhaust effects. Let’s go over a few examples.




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Photo 1 图片1
第一个例子我们会参考这张Su-100的照片,在JSU-152模型上涂装柴油发动机的排气效果,
For the first example we will be painting dieselexhaust effects like the ones seen on the rear of this Soviet SU-100 onto the JSU-152.




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Photo 2-3 图片2-3
我用田宫消光黑在排气罩开口周围区域喷涂一层黑色。然后在喷涂区域涂上黑色天然土,这样有助于产生真实的消光效果。
I airbrushed a coat of matt black Tamiyapaint onto the areas around the opening of the armoured exhaust covers. Lightamounts of black pigments were brushed over the Tamiya paint helping to createa further authentic matt effect.  



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Photo 4-5 图片4-5
我用黑,蓝,棕和珐琅光泽清漆调制了一个栗色调。用斑点法弹到排气口附近,模拟劣质柴油遗留下来的油渍和杂质。因为之前有黑色天然土,所以和颜料混合之后提供了一点微妙的质感。与其他例子中的T-34一样,注意这款T-55回收车排气管周围的油渍和杂质的光泽效果。
Bits of a dark maroon tone representingleft over oil and other impurities from the low-quality diesel fuel wereapplied using the speckling technique. I made this tone using a blend of black,blue, brown and gloss enamels mixed with pigments. The pigments provided a bitof texture to the blend. Like with the T-34 on the other page note the satintexture of oil and other impurities around the exhaust of this T-55 recoveryvehicle




16-01-06.jpg    16-01-07.jpg
Photo 6-7 图片6-7
我用上面那种栗色添加了一些垂纹效果。
I added some more runs of oil using thesame dark maroon tone finishing the effect.  



16-01-08.jpg    16-01-09.jpg
Photo 8-9 图片8-9
JSU-152的炮管上的烟熏效果所用技术几乎相同。我在制退器周围薄喷一层黑色,这里我用水稀释了丙烯颜料,只是轻轻的喷了一层。然后用天然土修饰这块黑色区域,创造逼真的消光烟熏效果。注意,如同我们举的这个例子一样,炮口通常只有淡淡的烟熏效果。
The techniques used to produce the smokeeffects on the gun of this JSU-152 were pretty much the same. I airbrushed a verylight coat of black around the openings of the muzzle break. In this case Iused acrylic paints from a tube thinned with tap water. Pigments were againused to touch up the black areas helping to create a realistic matt smokeappearance. Please note that only very faint smoke effects are often needed onmuzzle breaks such as in this example.




16-01-10.jpg
Photo 10 图片10
再来看看这款汽油驱动的Geschuzwagen Tiger Fur 17cm自走炮的排气管周围的烟熏效果相当微妙。除了排气管出气口一点点的黑色以外,管子外部也有黑色。如果你仔细参考了图片1的那辆T-34的照片,您会发现其实排气管本书外表上的烟熏反而很少。
The effects around the exhaust pipes for thisgasoline driven Geschuzwagen Tiger Fur 17cm were rather subtle. Note that otherthen on the very tip of the opening only a little black has been applied to theexterior of the pipe. If you look at reference pictures such as the T-34 inphoto number one you will see that very little soot is present on the externalsurface of exhaust pipes.

16-01-11.jpg    16-01-12.jpg
16-01-13.jpg    16-01-14.jpg
16-01-15.jpg
Photo 11-15
在这个虎式的例子中,我先用遮盖液把排气口保护盖遮盖上,接着在排气管内部喷涂黑色。再小心的把遮盖取下,露出排气管保护装置的顶部,在周围轻喷一层消光黑(译者注:注意只喷遮盖保护盖的边缘,中间露出原本的底色,营造真实的烟熏效果)。最后涂一点天然土来完成这个效果。
In the case of this Tiger I covered theprotectors over the openings of the exhausts using a liquid mask before Iairbrushed the interiors black. I very carefully peeled the mask away revealingthe tops of the protectors, airbrushed a bit more matt black around theperimeters, and then brushed on some pigments to finish the effects.  



- 完 -
谢谢大家!

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发表于 2018-11-27 10:28:15 | 显示全部楼层
依依不舍,好不习惯啊!感谢楼主的辛勤劳动,希望能继续有好书翻译!
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 楼主| 发表于 2018-11-27 10:43:17 | 显示全部楼层
邓叔叔 发表于 2018-11-27 10:28
依依不舍,好不习惯啊!感谢楼主的辛勤劳动,希望能继续有好书翻译!

谢谢你们的关注!也祝广州模型群蒸蒸日上,大作满满!!
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发表于 2018-11-27 11:35:03 | 显示全部楼层
完结,散花鼓掌。感谢楼主,也希望能看到新的翻译。
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发表于 2018-11-27 11:55:42 | 显示全部楼层
感谢楼主一直以来的工作,对于我这种萌新的收获是相当大的,而且还是免费的真是棒棒哒
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发表于 2018-11-27 12:02:14 | 显示全部楼层
感谢楼主分享!楼主辛苦了!
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发表于 2018-11-27 12:04:25 | 显示全部楼层
感谢楼主的分享,广大模友收益其中,值得受到模友们的肯定和追捧!  模型岛感谢楼主,和谐之地欢迎您常来。
来自安卓客户端来自安卓客户端
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发表于 2018-11-27 12:19:48 | 显示全部楼层
感谢楼主辛苦翻译,整个系列非常完整且有帮助~
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